MEDIEVAL INDIA (7 AD-1707AD)

Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316):-

  • His original name was Ali Gurshap.
  • He ascended the throne after the killing of his uncle Jalalauddin in 1296.
  • He was the illiterate and uneducated king.
  • He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics. He proclaimed “kingship knows no kinship”.
  • Alauddin Khalji demolished Somnath temple in mid 12th
  • In Deccan Alauddin Khalji’s army was led by his slave Malik Kafur defeated Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Pandyas of Madurai and Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra in 1308-11.
  • He was the first sultan of Delhi Sultanate to lay the foundation of a permanent army.
  • He instituted the practice of recording the descriptive roll of individual soldiers (huliya or chehra) and branding of horses (dagh).
  • He was 1st sultan who enquired about the causes of revolt and as a result he passed ordinances to curb the causes of revolt.
  • Maximum Mangol attacks on India were during Alauddin’s time.
  • He established market control department under a minister called Diwan-i-riyasat. He fixed the prices of many things below the usual market rates. The markets were individually looked by after Shahana-i-mandi.
  • He declared himself as Sikandar-i-Sani, the second Alexander.
  • He constructed Alai Darwaza, fort of Siri and the palace of thousand pillars called Hazar Situn.
  • 1n 1303 AD, he attacked on Chittorgarh.
  • He was a great patron of learning and fine arts. Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan resided in his court.
  • He died in 1316 AD.

 

Amir Khusrau:-

  • Amir Khusrau was a prolific Persian poet with the royal courts of more than seven rules of Delhi Sultanate during 1253-1325 AD.
  • He was a versatile person. He was a composer of poetry in Urdu, Arabic, Persian, a soldier and a diplomat and a shrewd in court matters.
  • He accompanied Alauddin Khalji’s Chittor attack. He talked about the performing of Jauhar by Rajput women there.
  • He was also a good musician.
  • He is also known as Tuti-i-Hind or parrot of India.

 

Books wrote by Amir Khusrau:-

  • Khazin-ul-Fatah (Tarikh-i-Alai) —–     Expeditions of Alauddin Khalji
  • Tughlaqnama —–     History of Gayasuddin Tuglaq
  • Khamsah —–     A collection of his five works
  • Miftahul Futuh —–     The military campaigns of Jalaluddin Khalji
  • Ashiqa & Khizr Khan —–     Love story of Deval Rani

 

Qutbuddin Mubarak Khalji (1316-1320 AD):-

  • Shihabuddin Umar, grandson of Alauddin Khalji was nominated as his successor. He was replaced by Malik Kafur.
  • Mubarak Khan, son of Alauddin Khalji got malik Kafur killed and raised himself to the throne with the title of Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah.
  • He appointed Khusrau as Makil Naib (prime minister).
  • He was killed by Amir Khusrau in his palace in 1320. Later on, Khusrau was also murdered by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

 

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414 AD):-

 

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325 AD):-

  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the founder of Tughlaq dynasty. He served as Alauddin’s muqti in Dipalpur (Punjab) for several years.
  • He had estranged relations with Sheikh Nijamuddin Auliya.
  • He took the title of Ghazi (great worrier).
  • He laid the foundation of a big palace called Tughlaqabad, completed by Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • He in 1325 when a pavilion which was erected by Jauna Khan for his reception, fell upon him.

 

Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD):-

  • Jauna Khan became Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • He was most educated sultan of Delhi Sultanate, but lack of Practical judgment.
  • He is known for his four experiments during 1325-30, which were failed miserably. They are:-
  1. He shifted capital from Delhi to Devagiri in 1326-27 which was renamed as Daulatabad and again to Delhi.
  2. Introduced token currency in 1329-30:- silver coin was replaced by copper coin.
  3. Increased land revenue in doab region upto 50%.
  4. Prepared separate army to attack upon Persia (Iran) and Qarachil (Kangra, HP) expedition in 1337-38, after one year he left the plan of separate army.

 

  • He issued maximum number of coins among the Delhi Sultans. Hence, he has been called prince of moneyers.
  • He faced many revolts, two of them were important, as those led to the independent kingdoms viz. Vijayanagar kingdom (1336) and Bahmani kingdom (1349).
  • He completed the fort Tughlaqabad and renamed as Jahanpanah.
  • Moroccan traveler Ibn Batuta visited Delhi during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq in 1333 AD.
  • He died due to illness at Sindh in 1351 AD.
  • In the words of historian Abdul Qadir Badauni, “The sultan was freed from his people and people were freed from the sultan”.

 

Firoz Shah Tughalaq (1351-1388):-

  • He was the cousin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq declared his State as a Sunni Islamic State under the influence of clergy.
  • He made a separate tax Jizya, a protection tax on non-muslim including Brahmanas for the first time in the history of Sultanate.
  • He constructed many canals for irrigation purpose.
  • He established many deparments i.e.
  • Diwan-i-khairat                         For charity purpose
  • Diwan-i-bandagan For the slaves
  • Dar-ul-Shifa For the charitable hospital

 

  • He founded many cities i.e. Firozabad, Fatehabad, Hissa Firoza, Jaunpur and Firozpur.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq wrote his autobiography called as Futuhat-i-firozshahi.
  • He also started translation of Sanskrit works into Persian.
  • He was the first king who makes effort to decode the script of Ashokan pillers.
  • He died at Thatta (Sindh) in 1388 AD.

 

Later Tughlaqs (1388-1414 AD):-

  • Tughlaq Shah, grandson og Firoz Shah Tughlaq accessed on throne. He took the title of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq-2.
  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq-2 offened his nobles by his conduct. So they deposed him and place another grandson of Firoz Tughlaq, Abu Bakr in 1389.
  • Muhammmad Khan, son of Firoz Tughlaq deposed the Abu Bakr with help of some powerful officials and placed himself on throne in 1390 AD.
  • Muhammmad Khan, died due to illness in 1394 AD.
  • Alauddin Sikandar Shah, elder son of Muhammmad Khan Succeeded him, but he also died in 1395 AD.
  • Nasiruddin Mahmud, younger son of Muhammad Khan came to throne in 1395 AD. He was the last Tughlaq Sultan of Tughlaq dynasty. Timur, the emperor of Central Asia attacked upon India during his rule.
  • Timur defeated Nasiruddin Mahmud in 1398. Timur appointed Khzir Khan to look after north-west India.
  • Nasiruddin Mahmud died in 1483.
  • The nobles chose one of them, named Daulat Khan as Sultan.

 

Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451 AD):-

 

Khizr Khan (1414-1421AD):-

  • Khizr khan defeated Dulat Khan and became the Sultan of Delh in 1414 AD.
  • He was the most powerful Sultan of the Sayyid dynasty.
  • He claimed to be the descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
  • He did not assume the title of Sultan, but contended himself with that of Rayat-i-Ala.
  • He pretended to act as a viceroy of Mirza Shahrukh, the successor of Timur.
  • Other Sayyid Sultans:-
  1. Mubarak Shah-2 ——–            1421-1434
  2. Muhammad Shah-4 ——–            1434-1445
  3. Alauddin Alam Shah ——–            1445-1451

 

Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526 AD):-

 

Bahlol Lodi (1451-1489 AD):-

  • Bahlol Lodi was the founder of Lodi dynasty.
  • His main achievement was the restoration of the credit and prestige of Delhi kingdom which has fallen considerably low under the later Tughlaqs and the Sayyids.
  • His second achievement was the conquest and annexation of the kingdom of Jaunpur.
  • He started coins called Bahloli.

 

Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517):-

  • Nizam Khan, son on Bahlol Lodi came to the throne in 1489 and assumed title of SikandarShah Lodi.
  • He founded the city of Agra in 1504 and transferred his capital from Delhi to Agra.
  • He was a contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat and Rana Sanga of Mewar.
  • He introduced a unit of measurement called Gaz-i-Sikandari.
  • He demolished famous Jwalamukhi temple at Nagarkot. He charged jizya and pilgrim tax from the Hindus with severity.
  • He wrote verses in Persian, under the pen-name Gulrukhi.
  • He has written a book called Lahjat-i-Sikandari.
  • A Sanskrit treatise on medicine was translated into Persian under the name Farhang-i-Sikandar during his reign.
  • He built his father’s tomb at Delhi.
  • He died due to illness in 1517.

 

Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526 AD):-

  • Ibrahim, eldest son of Sikndar Lodi came to throne with unanimous consent of Afghan peers in 1517.
  • He assumed the title Ibrahim Shah.
  • He was defeated by Rana Sanga of Mewar.
  • Daulat Khan Lodi, governor of Punjab assumed virtual independence and opened negotiations with Babur, the king of Kabul, whom he invited to invade India and overthrow Ibrahim.
  • Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed, by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526.

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