VijayaNagar and Badmi Kingdom:-
Vjayanagar Kingdom (1336-1565 AD):-
- According to Kapaluru and Begepalli grants, Vijayanagar Kingdom and the city was founded in1336 by Harihar-I and Bukka-I (Eons of Sandgamta)
- Harihar and Bukka have three other brothers. They were the sons of Sangama, hences forth the dynasty established by them called as Sngama
- The other dynasties which ruled over Vijayanagar were the Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu respectively.
- Harihar-I and Bukka-I was in the custody of Mohammad bin Tughlaq after Tughlaq won the kingdom of Kampili. They were converted to Islam and were sent to south again to control rebellion but on the instance of great sage and scholar Vidyaranya, they established Vijayanagara kingdom.
- Vijayanagar’s arch rivals were Bahmani Sultans with whom they fought many battles. The areas of contention were Tungabhadra doab (between Krishna & Tungabhadra), Krishna-Godavari basin (Ramhul) and Konkan areas of Marathwada.
THE TULUVA DYNASTY:-
Vira Narasimha (1505-1509 AD):-
- Vira Narasimha foaund the Tuluva dynasty. He was the son of Narasa Nayakaa
- He became king after the assassination of lmmadi Narasimha.
Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529):-
- Krishna Deva Raya was the younger brother of Vira Narasimha.
- Saluva Timma, the Chief Minister of Vira Narasimha, placed Krishna Deva Raya, on the throne, after imprisoning his two step brothers and Vira Narasimha’s minor son.
- He maintained friendly relations with Albuquerque, the Portuguese Governor and granted him permission to build a fort at Bhatkal.
- He built the Vijaya Mahal (House of Victory) and expanded the Hazara Rama temple (Hampi) and the Vithal Swami Temple. He assumed the titles of Yavanaraja Sthapanacharya (restorer of the Yavana Kingdom, i.e. Bahamani) and Abhinava Bhoja (Great patron of Literature). He is also known as Andhra-Pitamaha and Andhra Bhoia.
- He was a talented scholar in both Telugu and Sanskrit. The Telugu work on his political ideas is Amuktamalyada and the Sanskrit drama is Jambavati Kalyanam.
- His court was adorned by the Ashta-diggajas (the eight celebrated poets). Tenalirama was one of them.
- After the death of Krishna Deva Raya, his half brother Achyuta Raya succeeded him. Just after the devastation of Vijayanagar, a traveller Caeser Fredrick visited Vijayanagar. A book The Forgotten Empire by Robert Swell talks about Vijayanagar.
- In 1543 Sadashiva Raya ascended the throne and reigned till 1567. Rama Raya was the leading person in his court.
- Bijapur, Golconda and Ahrnadnagar combined to inflict a defeat of Vijayanagar at Bannihatti near Talikota in 1565. This is also called Battle of Talikota or the Battle of Rakshasa-Tangadi.
Famous Travellers to Viiayanagaf Kingdom:-
|Nicolo de conti||Italy (Venice)||Deva Raya-1|
|Abdur Razzak||Persia||Deva Raya-2|
|Domingo Paes||Portugal||Krishnadeva Raya|
|Duarte Barbosa||Portugal||Krishnadeva Raya|
- The most remarkable ﬁgure in the Bahmani kingdom was Firuz Shah a Bahmani (1397-1422).
- He was well acquainted with the religious sciences, i.e. commentaries on the Quran. Jurisprudence etc.
- He was particularly fond of the natural sciences such as botany, geometry etc.
- Firoz Shah included Hindus in the administration on large scale.
- Firoz Shah Bahmani was married to daughter to Deva Raya-I (1404-1422). However, Deva Raya, defeated him in 1419 for the Krishna-Godavari basin.
- Firoz Shah Bahmani.
- Ahmad Shah-I Shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
- The Bahmani kingdom gradually expanded and reached its height of power and territorial limits during the Prime Ministership of Mahmud Gawan.
The Mughal Age:-
Babur (1526-1530 AD):-
- He was the founder of Mughal dynasty in India
- He was a direct descendant of Timur and believed himself to be a descendant also of chengiz khan through his mother.
- He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodi (Subedar of Punjab), Ibrahim Lodi’s uncle Alam Khan Lodi and Rana Sanga.
- He was successful in his fifth expedition to India, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526.
- He was the first one to entitle himself as‘Padshah’.
- He took keen interest in the development of gardens.
- He wrote Tuzuk-i-Baburi or Baburnama in Turkish. It was translated into Persian by Abdul-Rahim Khan-i-Khanan.
- He died in 1530 and was buried first at Arambagh in Agra. Roughly nine years later his body was taken to Kabul and burried there.
- The Battle of Ghaghra was the Ist battle which was fought on Land and water simultaneous in medieval India.
Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556):-
- Humayun succeeded his father Babur, but as per the Timurid tradition he was forced to share power with his brothers. Thus Sulaiman was given Badakshan, Kamran inherited Kabul and Qandhar, while Askari and Hindal received Sind.
- He built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital.
- He faced a formidable opponent in the Afghan, Sher Shah Suri. He was defeated in the Battle of Chausa by Sher Shah Suri in 1539.
- He was again defeated in the Battle of Biligram (Kannauj) by Sher Shah Suri in 1540.
- Defeat at Kanauj compelled Humayun to leave lndia. He fled to the refuge of Safavid Empire in Persia.
- After the death of Sher Shah Suri in 1545, Humayun conquered Qandhar and re-established his control over Kabul with the help of Shah Tahmasp, the Persian king.
- He defeated the forces of Sikandar Sur and occupied Agra and Delhi in 1555.
- His sister, Gulbadan Begum wrote his biography, Humayunnama.
- His wife Hamida Banu Begum built his tomb at Delhi, known as Humayun’s tomb.
Akabar (1556-1605 AD):-
- Akbar was crowned at Kalanaur (Punjab) at the age of 14 years.
- He defeated Hemu, Wazir of Adil Shah Suri in second batlle of Panipat in 1556.
- He ruled under the regency of Bairam Khan from 1556 to 1560.
- Akbar married Hira Kunwari, daughter of Kachhwaha king Bharmal. She took the name Jodha Bai.
- He sent Raja Man Sing of Amber, brother of Jodha Bai to confront Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar in the battle of Haldighati in 1576. In this battle Rana Pratap Singh was defeated.
- At the time of Akbar, there were five leading States of the deccan viz. Khandesh (Farruqis), Ahmadnagar, (Nizam Shahs), Berar (Imad Shahs), Bijapur (Adil Shahs) and Golconda (Qutab Shahs).
- Akbar faced a rebellion in Gujarat in 1572, which was crushed.
- He built Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikri in memory of victory over Gujarat.
- ln 1579, he issued a decree called ‘Mazharnama’ and took control of the law in his own hands.
- ln 1585, he transferred his capital to Lahore in order to effect a greater integration of the north west into the Mughal empire. ‘
- His last compaign was against Asirgarh (Khandesh) in 1601.
- Akbar abolished the pilgrimage tax on Hindus in 1563. He also abolished Jizya in 1579. Akbar introduced a new Khutba, written by Faizi
- His liberalism is reflected again in the pronouncement of Tauhid-i-Allahi or Din-i-Allahi which propounded Sufi divine monotheism.
- Blrbal, Abul Fazl and Faizi Joined Din -i- Allahi. Raja man Singh did not join it.
- ln Akbar’s court there were nine versatile personalities which were eminent in various field. They were called nine gems or Navratnas.
- Navratnas included Todar Mal, Abul Fazl, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh and Fakir Aziao-Din.
- Ralph Fitch was the first Englishman to visit Akbar’s court in 1585.
- Abul Fazl wrote Akbarnama, the appendix of which was called Aina-i-Akbari. This section deals with the laws and revenue system.
- After the death of Akbar, his eldest Salim became king under the title Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir.
- He married Mehr-un-Nisa, known as Nurjahan.
- Nurjahan exercised tremendous influence over the State affairs. She was made the otﬁ¢ia| Badshah Begum.
- In 1612, Nurjahan arranged the marriage of Jahangir’s Second son Khurram (Shahjahan) to her brother Asif Khan’s daughter Arjumand Banu (later known as Mumtaz Mahal).
- Nurjahan built a white marble mausoleum for her father ltmad-ud-daulah near Agra.
- Jahangir banned slaughter of animals on Sunday and Thursday.
- He Khusrau (son of Jahangir), who received patronage of Guru Arjun Dev, revolted against Jahangir. The fifth Sikh guru Arjun Dev was later sentenced to death for his blessings to the rebel prince.
- Khurram (Shahjahan) supported by his father-in-law, Asif Khan, also revolted against Jahangir but the too soon reconciled.
- Jahangir was read and he wrote his memoirs Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian.
- John Hawkins resided at Agra for two years (1609-11). He was given the mansab of 400.
- Sir Thomas Roe (1615-18) who was ambassador of James-I came to the court of Jahangir.
- Jahangir died in 1627 in Kashmir and was buried at Lahore.
Shahjahan (1621-1658 AD):-
- Shahiahan succeeded the Mughal empire after the death of Jahangir in 1628.
- The first thing that Shahjahan had to face was revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujhar Singh Bundela of Orchcha) and the Deccan (Khan-i-Jahan Lodi, the governor of Deccan).
- In 1612 he married Arzumand Banu who became as Mumtaz Mahal.
- He defeated Portuguese in 1632 and annexed Ahmadnagar in 1636.
- He sent his armies to Balkhan and Badakshan in Central Asia in order to secure the defence of north-western India. Shahjahan who had recovered Kandhar from the lranians in 1638 again lost it in 1649, despite three campaigns under the leadership of Prince Murad, Aurangzeb and Dara, respectively. Jahan built Moti Masjid (Agra); Red Fort Jama Masjid (Delhi) and Taj Maha.
- During Shahajahan’s reign, the Mughal Architecture reached to its peak. Shahjahan built Jami Mosque at Ajmer, his father’s mausoleum at Lahore and Jama Masjid in Delhi.
- He also built Shalimar Garden in Kashmir, Taj Mahal (in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal) at Agra & Red Fort at Delhi.
- After the sickness of Shahjahan in 1657 the war of succession for the Mughal crown began.
- In 1657 Shahjahan’s eldest son Dara was with him at Agra, Suza was governor in Bengal, Aurangzeb was Viceroy in Deccan and the youngest son Murad was governor in Gujarat. During the war of succession, Shahjahan’s two daughters Jahan Ara and Roshan Ara supported his two sons, Dara and Aurangzeb, respectively. Aurangzeb defeated the Mughal Forces lead by Dara in the Battle at Samugarh near Agra.