Aurangzeb (1 658-1 707 AD):-
- Aurangzeb crowned himself as emperor at Delhi in 1658 and took the title of Alamgir. But his second and formal coronation took place when he defeated Dara in 1659.
- He forbade inscription of Kalma on the coins.
- He reimposed Jizya in 1679.
- He abolished the inland transit duties (rahdari) and the octroi (pandari).
- He prohibited intoxicating drugs and destroyed the Vishwanath temple of Varanasi.
- He forbade music in the court.
- He ended the ceremony of weighing the emperor on his birthdays and the practice of Jharokha danhan.
- Guru Teg Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs, was besieged and taken to Delhi where he was beheaded in 1679.
- According to the Treaty of Purandar between Shivaji and Jai Singh (the viceroy to Agra) in 1666, Shivaji ceded some forts to Mughals and agreed to pay a visit to the Mughal Court at Agra. But when Shivaji went to Agra he was dissatisfied with the reception and he secretly escaped from Agra.
- In 1689, Sambhaji, the eldest son of Shivaji, was captured and beheaded by Aurangzeb.
- Aurangzeb compiled Fatwa-i-Alamgiri.
- Aurangzeb destroyed several Hindu temples e.g the Keshav Flat temple built by Raja Bir Singh Mathura, the Vishwanath temple built by Raja Man Singh in Benaras. Aurangzeb died in 1707 in Ahmad nagar and was burned near Daulatabad near the grave of Shaikh Jail-ul-Haq.
- During his reign the Mughal empire reached to its territorial climax.
- Aurangzeb was not that good in the construction at monuments; however he built Moti Masjid at Delhi and Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad.
- Sher Shah founded the Sur Dynasty after defeating Humayun in 1540 in the Battle of Bilgram. He had already defeated Humayun in the Battle of Chausa in 1539.
- His original name was Farid and his father was a small jagirdar at Jaunpur.
- The title of Sher Khan was given to him by his patron for killing a tiger (Sher).
- Ibrahim Lodi transferred his father’s Jagir to him.
- ln 1527-28 he joined Babur’s service, and then returned to Bihar as deputy governor and guardian of the minor king Jalal Khan Lohani. In 1530, he usurped the throne as Hazarat-i-Ala.
- He ruled for 5 years only.
- Sher Shah restored the imperial road called The Grand Trunk Road from the Sonargaon (Bengal) upto Indus river in west.
- He also built a road from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor evidently linking up with the road to the Gujarat seaports. He built a third road from Lahore to Multan.
- For the convenience of travelers, he built a sarai at a distance of every two kos (about 8 km) on these roads.
- Sher Shah also built a new city on the bank of Yamuna near Delhi. The sole survivor of this is the Old Fort (Purana Quila) and fine mosque Within it
- He died in 1545, while he was conquering Kalinjar, due a blast over there.
- Sher Shah was succeeded by his second son Islam Shah, who ruled till 1553.
- Islam Shah was a capable ruler and general, but most of his energies were occupied with the rebellions raised by his brothers, and with tribal feuds among the Afghans.
- Islam Shah’s death at a young age led to a civil war among the successors. Thus, Humayun got the opportunity; he had been seeking for recovering his empire in India.
- In hotly contested battles in 1555, he defeated the Afghans and recovered Delhi and Agra.
Later Mughal Age
Bahadur Shah-I (1707-1712):-
- After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession started amongst his three surviving sons namely Muazzam – the governor of Kabul, Azam-the governor of Gujarat and Kam Baksh– the governor of Bijapur.
- Muazzam defeated Azam and Kam Baksh and ascended the Mughal throne with the title of Bahadur Shah-1.
- He pursued pacifist policy and was therefore also called Shah-i-Bekhabar.
- He also assumed the title of Shah Alam-I.
- He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal.
- He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.
- He defeated Banda Bahadur at Lohgalh and reoccupied Sirhind in 1711.
Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719):-
- Farrukh Siyar ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers, Abdullah Khan and Hussain Khan.
- Abdullah Khan and Hussain Khan were known as the King Makers. The elder Sayyid Abdullah Khan became the Wazir and the younger brother Hussain Khan became the Mir Bakshi.
- Farrukh Siyar was killed by the Sayyid brothers in 1719.
- Farrukh Siyar gave the English East India Company a firman granting trade privileges in India.
Muhammad Shah (1719-48):-
- Muhammad Shah was never bothered about what is happening in the State and what is required for the development of the State. He was a pleasure loving king and was nick named Rangaela.
- Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed Wazir in 1722 but he relinquished the post and marched to the Deccan to set up, the State of Hyderabad.
- Murshid Quli Khan, who was the governor of Bengal established the independent State of Bengal.
- Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk who was appointed governor of Awadh by Muhammad Shah laid down the foundation of the autonomous State of Awadh.
- During the reign of Muhammad Shah, Nadir Shah raided India in 1739. He destroyed the Mughal empire and took away the peacock throne and the Kohinoor diamond. He ruined Delhi and killed the masses of the Delhi.
Ahmad Shah (1748-1754):-
- During his reign, Ahmad Shah Abdali (one of the ablest generals of Nadir Shah) marched towards Delhi and the Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan.
- From 1748-1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked many times and looted Mathura and Delhi. Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated Marathas in the 3rd Battle Panipat in 1761 and defeated them.
Shah Alam-ll (1759-1806):-
- After Muhammad Shah, he was the ruler who got so many years to rule. But he himself was so much feared of his own Wazir that he transferred his capital from one place to another.
- During his reign Najib Khan Flohilla became very powerful in Delhi so much so that Shah Alam-ll could not enter Delhi.
- He alongwith Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim and Nawab of Awadh Shujauddaula fought the Battle of Buxar in 1764, but they were defeated by the British.
- After the Buxar defeat, he ruled only in the name, whereas actually he was a prisoner of the British.
- According to Allahabad treaty of 1765, Shah Alam ll granted the diwani rights of Bengal.
- Bihar and Orissa to the British after the Battle of Buxar
Akbar Shah-ll (1806-37):-
- During the rule of Akbar Shah-ll, Lord Hastings ceased to accept the sovereignty of Mughals and claimed an equal status.
- He conferred the title of ‘Raja’ to Ram Mohan Roy.
Bahadur Shah-ll (1837-1857):-
- Bahadur Shah-ll was the last Mughal king. He was confined by the British to the Red Fort.
- He was known as Bahadur Shah Jafar.
- During the revolt of 1857 he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebellions. He was deported to Rangoon following the 1857 rebellion where he died in 1862. With the death of Bahadur Shah Jafar Mughal rule formally came to an end.
Foreign Travellers during the Mughal Period:-
Father Anthony Monserate
- He came to the court of Akbar in 1578 and he has described the court of Akbar and his character.
- The first British traveller (1588-1591) who gave an account of the people of India. their culture and customs.
William Hawkins (1608-1613):-
- He came to the court of Jahangir.
William Finch (1608):-
- He has given an account of Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and flora and fauna of India.
Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619):-
- He came to the court of Jahangir in 1616 and secured a farman from him.
- Shivaji was born at Shivner fort to Shahji Bhonsle and Jija Bai.
- Probably in 1637 or 1638 Shivaji inherited the paternal iagir of Pogna from his father under the guardianship of Dadaji Kondadev.
- After the death of his guardian Dadall Kondadev in 1647, he assumed full charge of his Jagir.
- At the age of 18, he conquered Torna fort and built a fort at Raigarh.
- Almost 0 forts wined by Shivaji.
- Shivaji initially targeted his campaign against the Adil Shah kingdom of Bijapur. Adil Shah deputed Afzal Khan to punish Shivaji, but he was killed by Shivaji in 1659.
- Later Shaista Khan, governor of Deccan was appointed by Aurangzeb in 1660. Shivaji lost Poona and suffered several defeats till he made a bold attack on Shaista’s military camp and plundered Surat (1664) and later Ahmadnagar.
- Then Aurangzeb appointed Mirza Raia Jar Singh of Amber to put down Shivaji in 1665 and Jai Singh succeeded in besieging Shivaji in the fort of Purandhar. Consequently the Treaty of Purandhar was signed.
- In 1674, Shivaji was coronated at Raigarh and he assumed the title of Haindava Dharmodharak (Protector of Hinduism) and Chhatrapati.
- Shivaji died in 1680.