- Gurjar Pratiharas dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta-1.
- They ruled over Rajasthan, Gujarat and Delhi. Capital was Ajmer.
- The Arab traveler Al-Masudi called the Gurjar Pratiharas kingdom “Al-juzr”.
- Vatsaraja’s son Nagabhatta-2 defeated Pala king Dharampal.
- Bhoja, also known as Mihir Bhoja was the greatest king of this dynasty. He was a Vishnu worshipper and called himself ‘Adi Varaha’.
- Bhoja defeated Kalchuries of Gorakhapura and Chandellas of Bundelkhand.
- Bhoja was succeeded by his son Mahendrapal.
- The great Sanskrit poet Rajashekhara lived in the court of mahipal, the grandson of Bhoja. He wrote Karpurmanjari, Bal Ramayana. Bal Mahabharata and Kanya Mimamsa.
- The Pala kingdom was founded by Gopala.
- Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharmapala.
- Dharmapala was defeated by Dhurva, the Rashtrkautta ruler. He was also defeated by Nagabhatta-2, the Gurjara Pratihara ruler.
- An Arab merchant, who came to India in 9th AD, wrote a book Ruhma.
- Dharmapala revived the Nalanda University and also founded Vikramshila University.
- The Pallas were the follower of Buddhism.
- The palas had the trade and cultural relation with south-east Asia.
- This dynasty was founded by Dantidurg.
- Their capital was mankiror manyakheta (present Malkhed near Sholapur, Maharashtra)
- Rashtrakuttas were called Ballahara by Arabs. Arab traveler refers them as Malik-al-muluk (king of king) of Al-Hind.
- Krishana-1 built the famous rock cut Shiv temple at Ellora.
- Amoghavarsha composed one of the earliest books in Kannad language, the “Kaviraj Marha”. He performed Sallekhana at Tungabhadra River.
- The greatest Rashtrakutta kings were Govinda-3 and Amoghavarsha.
- Krishna-3 defeated the Chola king Parantaka-1 and annexed northern part of his Empire.
- The Rashtrakuttas follows Shaivism but they also patronized Vaishnavism and Jainism.
- The founder of Chola dynasty was Vijalaya Chola.
- Cholas were the greatest among the entire south Indian dynasty.
- Rajraja-1captured the Maldive Island and north part of Sri Lanka and renamed it Anuradhapura.
- Rajraja-1constructed Brihasdiswara temple at Thanjavur. It is the tallest temple of South India.
- Rajendra-1 was the most powerful Chola king. He controlled the whole of Indian Ocean. His influenced reached south East Asian Islands.
- Rajendra-1 sent army to expand the Empire in North India. His army emerged victorious there and he assumed the title of “Gangaikonda Chola”.
- He constructed a new capital He also constructed a shiv temple called Brihadiswara temple.
The Delhi Sultanate:-
In early medieval the Indian rulers became unable to stop the foreign ruler’s attack because of disunity and lake of strategy, so many foreign rulers like Mahmud Gazani, Mohammad Ghori attacked on India.
Mahmud of Ghazani:-
- In 1001, Mahmud Ghazani defeated Jayapal, an Indian king who ruled from Peshawar and in 10080-09 he defeated Anandapal, son of Jayapal in Battle of Waihind.
- From 1008-25/26, he attacked on India 17 times and subsequent attacks of his were aimed to plundering the rich temples.
- He completely destroyed the Somanatha temple of Gujarat in 1025 and looted its wealth.
- Al-Beruni accompanied Mahmud to India with his army and wrote a book called Kitab-ul-Hind.
- Firdausi was a poet in Mahmud’s court he wrote Shahnama.
- Mahmud of Ghazani claimed descent from the Iranian legendary, Afrasiyab.
- He died in 1030 AD.
- His real name was Muizuddin Mohammad bin sam.
- He ascended the throne of Ghazani in 1175 AD and started moving towards India in 1175 AD.
- He entered in India through Gomal Pass and conquered Multan and Uchch.
- In 1191, he was defeated by Prathviraj Chauhan in the 1st battle of Tarain and in 1192 AD he defeated Prathviraj Chauhan in the 2nd battle of tarain.
- He captured Prathviraj Chauhan was capture and released. He ruled over Ajmer for some time and soon after, executed on a charge of conspiracy.
- Ghori defeated and killed Jaichand, ruler of Kannauj in Battle of Chandawar.
- He deputed Qutbuddin Aibak as an incharge of his Indian possessions.
- Image of Goddess Lakshmi has been found on the coins of Mahammud Ghori. His name was also written in Devnagari script on the coins.
- Ghori led his last campaign into India in 1206 to deal with Khokhar rebellion. He crushed the rebellion, but on his way back to Ghazi, he killed by a Muslim fanatic belonging to a rival sect.
Salve Dynasty (1206-1290 AD):-
- This dynasty was founded by ilbari Turks. Hence, it is also called ilbari dynasty.
- This dynasty also called Mamulak dynasty.
- It is known as slave dynasty because most three Sultans were the slave. Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave of Ghori, Iltutmish was a slave of Qutbuddin Aibak and Balban was a slave of Iltutmish.
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210 AD):-
- Qutbuddin Aibak was the founder of Delhi Sultanate. He was also founder of 1st Turkish kingdom in northern India. He ruled from Lahore.
- He known as Lakh Bakhsh e. donor of gold coin.
- He built two mosques one at Delhi known as Quwat-ul-Islam and another at Ajmer known as Dhai Din Ka Jhopada.
- He started the construction of Qutub minar which was named after a Sufi Sant Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
- He died due to the injury received as the result of a fall from horse while playing Chaugan (Polo).
Aram Shah (120-1211 AD):-
- Qutbuddin Aibak was succeeded by his son Aram Shah, but he was killed by Iltutmish.
Iltutmish (1211-1236 AD):-
- Qutbuddin married her daughter with Iltutamish and appointed him as a governor of Baduan.
- He was the real founder of Delhi Sultanate. He ruled from Delhi in place of Lahore.
- He saved Delhi sultanate in 1221 from wrath of Chengiz khan, the Mangol leader by refusing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz khan was chasing.
- He completed the construction of Qutub minar.
- He issued the silver coin tanka and copper coin jital.
- In 1217, in third battle of Tarain Iltutmish killed Yaldoz.
- He introduced new land revenue system called Iqtadari. The head of an Iqkta called muqti or iqtadar.
- He established an official nobility of slaves known as Chahalgani (group of 40 people).
- He patronized Minhaj-us-Siraj, the author of Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
- In 1233 he announced that the Razia will become the next king.
- He died due to illness in 1236.
Razia (1236-1240 AD):-
- Razia was the 1st and last lady ruler of Delhi sultanate.
- She was nominated by Iltutamish against the will of Chahalgani.
- She got married with Jallauddin Yakut, an Abyssinian (Ethiopian) officer.
- Soon after her accession, the governors of the provinces of Multan, Baudan, Hansi and Lahore started revolt against her.
- Altunia, governor of Bhatinda refused to accept suzerainty of Razia. Razia accompanied by Yakut marched against Altunia. However, Altunia got Yakut murdered and imprisoned Razia.
- Subsequently Razia married Altunia and he proceeded with her to Delhi to capture it by force.
- They were defeated by Bahram Shah’s army and compelled to return towards Bhatinda.
- In 1240 AD, She was killed by some robbers near Kaitha (Haryana).
- Minhaj-us-Siraj made a statement in his book Tabagate-e-Nasin “She had all the capabilities, her only fault was her being a woman” for Razia.
Ghiyasuddin Balban (1265-1287 AD):-
- Ghiyasuddin Balban was the former member of Chahlgani.
- He destroyed the Chahlgani and restored the prestige of the crown.
- He organized the spy system and created a strong centralized army to deal with internal disturbances.
- He established the military department Diwani-i-Arz.
- He laid great stress on genealogy claiming descent from the mythical Turkish hero, Afrasiyab.
- He took the title of Zill-i-Ilahi (shadow of God) and Niyabat-i-Khudai (god’s vice regent on earth).
- He introduced Sijada (prostration the king) and Paibos (kissing the feet of king) as normal forms of salutation.
- Balban died in 1287 and nominate Kai Khusrau as his successor. But his nobles set aside Kai Khusrau and place another grandson of Balban, Kaiqubad on the throne.
The last Sultan of the slave dynasty was Kayumars was put to death by Jalaluddin Khalji in 1290 AD.
Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD):-
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-1296 AD):-
- Jalaluddin Khalji was the founder of Khalji dynasty.
- He ascended the throne in 1290 at the age of seventy.
- He was iqtadar of an iqta and served Balban for many years.
- He was a pious Muslim with the desire to be recognized as the Mujahid-fi-Sabillah (fighter in the path of God).
- He was killed by Alauddin Khalji.