Modern India (1707-1947 AD)

Centers of Revolts & their Leaders:-
Delhi Bahadur Shah was the nominal leader. The real command was under General Bakht Khan.
Kanpur The revolt was led by Nana Sahib. Most of the fighting was done by
Tantia Tope. Azimullah Khan was another loyal sergiant of Nana Sahib.

Lucknow The revolt was led by Hazrat Mahal know the begum of Awadh. Maulvi Ahmadullah of Faizabad was also one of the great leaders.
Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai assumed the leadership of the sepoys. Later, she captured Gwalior with the help of Tantia Tope and Afghan guards.
Bareilly Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself as Nawab Nazim.
Arrah Kunwar Singh, the ruined Zamindar of Jagdishpur was the main leader.

Fate of the Leaders of the Revolt
Bahadur Shah-2 He was arrested and deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862.
Nana Sahib Alter being defeated he refused to surrender and escaped to Nepal in early 1859, never to be heard of again
Begum Hazrat Mahal The Begum of Awadh was compelled to hide in Nepal After the capture of Lucknow.
Rani Laxmi Bai Rani Laxmi Bai was died in the battle field in June 1858
Tantia Tope Tantia Tope was put to death after a hured trial on 15th April 1859.
Kunwar Singh Leader of revolt in Bihar died on 9th May 1859.

Governors-General and Viceroys of India:-

Warren Hastings (1772-1785):-
• He succeeded Clive in 1772 and became the First Governor of Bengal lor two years and in 1774, after enactment of Regulating Act of 1773. he became the first Governor-General of Bengal.
• He passed the Regulating Act of 1773 and also end the dual system of administration in 1772 setup by Clive.
• Appointment of collectors to manage revenue and justice related to revenue affairs.
• The Supreme Court was set up at Calcutta in 1774 and Calcutta Madarasa in 1781.
• The Rohilla war between the Rohillas and the Nawab of Awadh (1774). The first Anglo-Maratha war (1775-82) and the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.
• Pitt‘s India Act of 1784.
• Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with William Jones in 1784. lt was established due to the rising interest of Englishmen into Indian Culture.
• First English translation of Bhagwadagita was done by Charles Willkins and the introduction was written by warren Hastings.

Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793):-
• Established lower grade courts and Appellate courts. District Judge post started.
• The Third Anglo-Mysore war (1789-92) and the treaty of Seringpatam in 1792
• In 1791/92 Sanskrit college was established in Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan.
• Introduction of the Permanent Settlement in Bengal and Bihar in 1793.
• Introduction of civil service in India.

Sir John Shore (17934 798):-
• Famous for his policy of non-intervention.
• Charter Act of 1793.
• Battle of Kharda between Nizam and Marathas (1795).

Lord Wellesley (1798-1805):-
• Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance System in 1798, to bring Indian States under the control of British political power. He converted British empire in India into British empire of India because he covered largest area.
• The fourth Anglo – Mysore war (1799).
• Treaty of Bassein between Baji Rao II and the English (1802).
• The second Anglo-Maratha war (1803 – 1805).
• Formation of Madras Presidency in 1801.
• He described himself as Bengal tiger.
• He founded the Fort William College at Calcutta.

Lord Hastings (1813-1823):-
• Ended the policy of non-intervention.
• Military operations against Pindaris (1817 – 1818).
• The third Anglo-Maratha war (1816-1818).
• Abolition of Peshwaship and annexation of all his territories in 1818.
• Creation of Bombay Presidency in 1818.
• Gurkha war or The Anglo-Nepal war (1814-1815) and the Treaty of Sagauli.
• He abolished the censorship of press.

Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835):-
• He was appointed as the Governor General of Bengal from 1828 to 1833 but after enactment of the Charter Act of 1833, he became the First Governor General of India.
• He was also known as the liberal Governor-General.
• He was famous for the social reforms he introduced, such as abolition of Sati (1829) with the help of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Suppression of Thugi (1830) and suppression of infanticide and child sacrifices.
• Randhakant Deb opposed abolition of Sati Pratha.
• Macaulay report on English education was passed and English language accepted as the official language of India, after recommendations of Macaulay This report was based on downward filtration (it means teach some people and they will teach further many more).
• Opium trade was regularised, licensed and duty paid.
• In higher courts, Persian was replaced by English as the court language.
• He established the first medical college in Calcutta.

Lord Charles Metcalfe (1835-1836):-
• He is called as ‘Liberator of the Indian press’, as he removed all the restrictions on the press in India.

Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856):-
• He introduced ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ for annexing the dependant States whose ruler died without a natural heir to succeed him. Some important Indian States viz. Satara (1848), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853), Jaitpur & Sambhalpur (1854) and Nagpur (1854) were annexed by the enforcement of the Doctrine of Lapse.
• Rail service started between Bombay and Thane in 1853.
• Post office act, 1884 was passed and postage stamps were issued and Postal and Telegraph system was established.
• First telegraph line laid between Calcutta to Agra.
• He established Public Works Department.
• Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) and annexation of Punjab in 1849.
• Abolition of titles and pensions.
• Shimla became the summer capital of India and permanent headquarters of army.
• Competitive examination for Indian Civil Services was started.
• Headquarters of the Bengal Artillery were shifted from Calcutta to Meerut.
• An Engineering College was established at Roorkee.
• The Charter Act of 1853 Passed.
• Widow Remarriage Act (1856) passed.

Lord Canning (1856-1857):-
• Universities of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were set up in 1857.
• The revolt of 1857.

• After the Government of India Act, 1858, the Governor-General was called Viceroy of India.
Lord Canning (1857-1862):-
• First Viceroy of India.
• Proclamation of Queen Victoria and the Government of India Act, 1858.
• He was appointed as Secretary of India.
• Transfer of Indian administration to the British crown.
• Indian Councils Act of 1861 was passed by which Central and Provincial Legislative Councils were established.
• End of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ in I859.
• The Indian Penal Code (1858). Code of Criminal Procedure (I850) and High Court Act (1861) were introduced.
• Indigo Revolt (I859-61)) by the Indigo farmers of Bengal.
• Appointment of James Wilson as the first Finance member, who introduced the Income Tax.
• Slavery was declared as illegal in India.
Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869):-
• Establishment of the High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
• Bhutan War (1865).

Lord Mayo (1869-1872):-
• Establishment of Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
• Decentralisation of Finance.
• Establishment of Statistical Survey of India.
• For the first time in India a Census was held in 1871 but it was unsuccessful. He was assassinated by a Pathan in Andaman.
• Establishment of Mayo colIege in Aimer and Rajkot College in Kathiawar

Lord Lytton (1876-1880):-
• Parliament passed the Royal Titles Act of 1876 and Queen Victoria got a title of ‘Empress of India.
• Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was passed. This act also called ‘Gagging Act’ Under this act. No Indian language newspaper can wrote/preach.
• Lord Lytton held first Delhi Durbar in 1871, the Queen was declared as ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’.
• A Famine Committee under Sir Richard Stratchy appointed.
• The second Afghan War (1878-8O).
• The maximum age limit for candidates of Indian Civil Services (ICS) exams was lowered from 21 to 19 years.
• The Arms Act (1878).

Lord Ripon (18880-1884):-
• He was appointed by the liberal party under Gladstone.
• The first Factory Act of 1881 to improve child labour conditions.
• Ripon known as ‘Liberator of Indian Press’.
• The first organized (or successful) Census was held in 1881.
• Appointment of the ‘Hunter Commission’ on school education in 1882.
• Local self government Acts were passed in various Provinces during 1883 to 85.
• Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya said “Ripon was the greatest and the most beloved Viceroy whom India has known”.

Lord Dufferin (1884-1888):-
• Formation of the lndian National Congress in 1885.
• Third Burmese war (annexation of upper and lower Burma, 1885),

Lord Curzon (1899-1905):-
• The Indian Coinage and Paper Currency AC1 of 1899 introduced.
• Appointment of Police Commission (1902) under Sir Andrew Frazer to review Police Administration
• He organized the 2nd Delhi Darbar in 1903.
• He passed the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904 and also established the Archaeological Department.
• The partition of Bengal on 16th October, 1905 (it was cardinal blunder of Curzon).
• Establishment of Department of Commerce and Industry.

Lord Minto-2 (1905-1910):-
• Morley-Minto Reforms (Indian council act of 1909).
• Muslim League was formed by Salimullah at Dacca in 1906 and Agha Khan was appointed as 1st president of League.
• Surat Session and split in the Congress (1907)
• Execution of Khudiram Bose in 1908.

Lord Hardinge-2 (1910-1916):-
• Partition of Bengal was reversed in 1911.
• A grand Durbar (3rd Delhi Darbar) was held at Delhi in honor of King George V in 1911.
• Capital of India shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
• Bomb thrown at the convoy of Lord Hardinge on his entry into Delhi.
• Ghadar party formed at San Francisco and began the Ghadar movements.
• Establishment of Hindu Mahasabha by Madan Mohan Malaviya

Lord chelmsford (1916-1921):-
• Lucknow Session of Congress (1916) and Lucknow Pact between the Congress and Muslim League (1916).
• Formation of two Home Rule Leagues by Tilak at Pune and by Annie Besant at Adyar (near Madras) in1916.
• Arrival of Gandhiji and formation of Sabarmati Ashram and Champaran Satyagraha in 1916.
• Launch of Champaran Satyagraha (1917), Kheda Satyagraha (1918) and Satyagraha at Ahmadabad (1918).
• Montague August Declaration (1917).
• The Government of India Act of 1919, which introduced diarchy in the Provinces.
• Rowlatt Act, 1919 and the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre on 13 April, 1919.
• Khilafat movement (1919-1920) and non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922).
• Formation of Saddler Commission for education in 1917.
• Appointment of S.P. Sinha (First Indian to become a Governor) as Governor of Bihar.
Lord Reading (1921-1926):-
• Formation of Communist Party of India 1921 by M.N. Roy in Tashkent.
• Formation of Swaraj Party by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru in 1922.
• Violent incidents at Churi Chuara rind Gandhiji called off the Non-Corporation
• Formation of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1925.
• kakori train robbery in 1925.
• Murder of Swami Shraddhanand in 1926.
• Moplah Rebellion in Kerala (Malabar Coast) in 1921.

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