Modern India (1707-1947 AD)

The Khllntat and Non-Cooperation Movement
• A Khilafat Committee was formed under this leadership of the All Brothers, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Hakim Ajmal Khan, and a countrywide agitation was organized.
• The All – India Khllafat Conference held at Delhi in November 1919 decided to withdraw all co-operation from the government it their demands were not met.
• The Khilafat Committee launched a Non-Cooperation Movement on August 31, 1920. Gandhiji became one of the leaders of the Khilatat Movement to maintain Hindu-Muslim unity.
• The Congress held a special session in September 1920 at Calcutta and an annual session.
• The main emphasis of the movement was on boycott of schools, colleges, law courts, elections to Provincial and Central Assembly. Advocacy of the use of Charkha, Swadeshi education. Top lawyers like CR. Das and Motilal Nehru gave up their legal practice.
• Some swadeshi (positive programmes) like Swadeshi Education (establishment of Jamia Milia Islamia in Delhi and Kashi Vidyapeeth in Banaras), Hindu-Muslim unity. Removal of untouchability, no tax campaign etc. were implemented.
• The attack on a local police station by angry peasants at Chauri Chaura, in Gorakhpur district of UP on February 5, 1922, Gandhiji shocked by this incident and withdrew the Non-Cooperation to prevent the public mass from demoralisalron.
• On the tarlure ol this movement. Subhash Chandra Bose said it as a “National Calamity”.

Swaraj Party (1922):-
• Alter the withdrawal of non-cooperation movement, congress committee decided no active movement can be started because people were not ready at that time only constructive work can be done. But the congress committee was differ in their views and two groups were formed.
• In December 1922, Gaya session of congress, under the presidentship of C.Fi. Das, council entry resolution not passed. As a result, C.R. Das has left the post of congress president and announced another party known as ‘Swaraj Party’ in which C.R. Das appointed as president and M.L. Nehru as secretary.
• In 1923, Central Legislative Assembly (CLA) Swaraj Party won 42 seats out of 105 (42/105) and attained absolute majority in provinces.
• Due to the death of C.R. Das, Resulted Swami party declined,

Simon Commission and its Boycott:-
• In November 1927, the British appointed an all white, Indian Statutory commission known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman Sir John Simon). The Commission was appointed to review the performance of reforms of 1919 and suggest other reforms.
• In 1928, Simon commission report came in India. Indians objected and Anti Simon commission agitation was started and a call for ‘Simon Go Back’ begins. In Oct. 1928, the agitation in Lahore led by Lala Lajpat Fiai in which Saunders announced lathi charge and Lala Lajpat injured and later on, died due to internal injuries.
• After his death, Bhagat Singh and his comrades killed Saunders in December 1928.
• After the strong protest against Simon commission. Government of England said that all the parties should prepared their own common report As a result. Nehru Report was prepared.

Reasons of boycott of Simon Commission:-
• All the members of the commission were Englishmen.
• Constitutional Reforms were due only in 1929, but the Britain’s Conservative Secretary of State, Lord Brikenhead appointed the Simon Commission, before the due date. Indians were not prepared for that.
• Brikenhead, had constantly talked of the inability of Indians to formulate a concrete scheme of Constitutional Reforms.
• It was seen as a violation of the Principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.

Nehru Report:-
• All important Indian leaders and parties held the conference in February 1928. to meet the challenge of the Simon Commission and appointed a subcommittee under the chairmanship Motilal Nehru to draft a Constitution.
• The report was finalized by August 1928 and called Nehru Report.
• For the dominion, Nehru Report recommended Dominion Status on lines oi self-governing dominions as the form of government desired by Indians.
• The Report recommended equal rights for women freedom to form unions, and dissociation of the State from religion in any form

Irwin’s Statement (October, 1929):-
• ‘It is implicit in the 1917 (Montague’s Statement) that the natural issue of India’s progress, As contemplated there, is the attainment of Dominion Status”.
• He proposed Round Table Conference after the submission of the Simon Report.

Lahore Session and Poorna Swaraj (Dec.1929):-
• Irwin talks broke down on the issue of Dominion Status, which the British were reluctant to concede immediately. Jawaharial Nehru replaced Motilal Nehru as the Indian National Congress President at Lahore and the major decisions taken at Lahore Session were:
i. Round Table Conference to be boycotted.
ii. Poorna Swaraj or complete independence as the main aim of Congress.
iii. Launched a Programme of Civil Disobedience including non-payment of taxes.
iv. On December 31. 1929 the trlcolour was hoisted on the bank of River Ravi.
v. January 26th, 1930 fixed as the First Independence Day to be celebrated every year.

The Civil Disobedience Movement (1930):-
• To achieve the goal of complete independence. Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) was started by Gandhiji with the Dandi March on March 12. 1930. He started his march alongwith 78 followers from Sabarmati Ashram to the small village Dandi (Navsari District) to break the Salt Law. Gandhi covered a distance of 240 miles in 24 days.
• The Civil Disobedience Movement differed from the earlier Non-Cooperation Movement (1921-22) because the policy of Non-Cooperation Movement was affecting the administration of the Government by non-cooperation whereas tho Civil Disobedience Movement aimed at paralyzing the administration by performance of specific illegal acts.
• 12th March, 1930 Dandi March was undertaken from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi by Gandhiji.
• 18th April 1930 : Chittagong Armory was raided by Surya Sen.
• January 1931: First Round Table Conference.
• 5th March, 1931: ‘Delhl Pact‘ signed between Viceroy lrwin and Gandhiji.
• 23rd March 1931: Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were executed.
• March, 1931 (Karachi Congress): It accepted Delhi Pact, and Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn. The session also passed the resolution for Fundamental Rights and the Economic Policy.
• Sept.-Dec. 1931: Gandhiji participated in Second Round Table Conference alongwith Sarojini Naidu.
• Dec. 1931: Gandhiji returned and launched CDM but the movement was brutally suppressed by force.
• April, 1934: The movement was withdrawn formally.

First Round Table Conference (1930):-
• The First Round Table Conference summoned in London in 1930, between British and Indians to discuss the Simon Commission Report.
• The National Congress boycotted the Conference.
• Muslim League was represented by Mohammed Ali, Agha Khan and Jinnah. Hindu Mahasabha was represented by Moonje.
• Depressed class was represented by B. R. Ambedkar.
• Princes were represented by the Dewans of Hyderabad and Mysore respectively.
• This conference ended with no result.

Delhi Pact (Gandhi-Irwin Pact, March 1931):-
• Lord Irwin agreed to release all political prisoners except Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.
• Gandhiji agreed to suspend Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in Second Round Table Conference. Conference

Second Round Table Conference:-
• Gndhiji attended the second round table long with Sarojini Naidu. But the Conference
• British government refused to concede the basis of the nationalist demand for freedom on the basis of immediate grant of Dominion Status.
• The Second Round Table Conference ended with Ramsay MncDonald‘s announcement of:-
i. Formation of two new Muslim majority Provinces (North Western Frontier Province and Sind).
ii. Setting up of an Indian Consultative Committee.
iii. Setting up of three expert committees on Finance, Franchise and States.
iv. Holding out the prospect of a unilateral British Communal Award, if Indians failed to agree on the minorities’ issue.
Third Round Table Conference:-
• Third Round Table Conference was scheduled to be held in London (1932). The Congress did not participate in it while Muslim league as a party participated without Jinnah and princes were absented.
• The discussion led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935, also called as ‘White Paper’.

Quit India Movement:-
• Following the withdrawal of the CDM, Gandhiji wanted to locus upon his village reconstruction program and Harijan campaign while many other party members wanted to fight the election.
• In the elections to the Central Legislative Assembly in 1November 1934, the Congress won 45 out of 75. The govt. announced seats holding of elections of the Provincial Legislatures in February 1937 under the Government of India Act 1935 which promised provincial autonomy the Lucknow Session (April 1936), the Congress decided to contest them. The Congress framed a detailed political and economic program at the Faizpur Session (December 1936) under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

August Offer (1940):-
• The Viceroy (Linlithgow) put forward a proposal that included:
(1) Dominion Status in the unspecified future.
(2) A post-war body to enact the Constitution.
(3) Expansion of Governor-General’s Council with representation of the Indians.
(4) Establishing a War Advisory Council.
(5) Right to secede for some provinces.

The Cripps Mission (March-April 1942):-
• After the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese. The British decided to send the Cripps Mission to India for constitutional proposals, which included:
a) Dominion Status to be granted after the war with the right to secede (any province could. If it so desired, remain outside the Indian Union and negotiate directly with Britain).
b) Constitution making body to be elected from Provincial Assemblies and Princes‘nominees after the War.
c) Individual princes could sign a separate agreement with the British which in effect accommodated the Pakistan demand.
d) British would however, control the defense for war period.
• The Congress did not want to rely upon future promises. It wanted a responsible government with full powers and also a control over the country’s defense. Gandhiji termed the proposals as post dated cheque on a crumbling bank.

Quit India Movement (1942):-
• Due to the of the failure of Cripps Mission, imminent Japanese threat, the British attitude towards Indians who were left behind in Burma and the prevailing anger and hostility to an alien and meaningless war. Quit India resolution was passed on8Augusl 1942 at Gowalia Tank, Bombay. Gandhiji told the Britishers to quit and “leave India in Gods hand” Hrs message was ‘Do or Die’.
• In this movement, all the prominent leaders like Gandhi, Nehru and Patel etc were arrested but the other leaders like Jar Prakash Narayan. Ram Manohar Lohia, Aruna Ashal Ali. Usha Mehta (she ran All-India Congress Radio) etc continued the revolutionary struggle.
• Violence spread throughout the country and parallel government were established in some places viz. 1. Balia (Uttar Pradesh). 2. Tamulak(Bengal) 3, Satara (Maharashtra) 4. Talchar(Orissa). Finally, the movement was, however, crushed by the government.
• The participation of Public was on many levels. School & College students remained in the forefront, women actively participated and workers went on strikes. There were no communal clashes during the movement. Repression was severe. Communist Party of India due to its Peoples War line did not support the movement. The Indian princes and the landlords were supporting the war effort and therefore did not sympathize with the movement.

Rajagopalachari Formula (1945):-
• In 1944, C. Rajagopalachari proposed that after the termination of the war, a Commission could be appointed for demarcating contiguous districts in the north-west and east where Muslims were in absolute majority. ln the areas thus demarcated, a plebiscite would be held on the basis of adult suffrage that would ultimately decide the issue of separation from Hindustan.
• Jinnah objected. as he wanted Congress to accept two-nation theory and wanted only Muslims of the northwest and east of India to vote in the plebiscite. Hindu leaders led by V.D. Savarkar condemned the plan.

Indian National Army:-
• In March 1942 a conference of Indians was held in Tokyo, and they formed the Indian Independence League. At the Bankok Conference (June. 1942) Ras Bihari Bose was elected President of the League.
• INA was formed by Captain Mohan Singh in Singapore. Subhas Chandra Bose had escaped to Berlin in 1941 and set up Indian Legion there. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There Ras Bihari Bose handed over the leadership to him
• Azad Hind Government and the Indian National Army were formed on 21 October 1943.
• INA had three lighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade led by Laxmi Sehgal was an exclusive women force.
• Laxmi Sehgal, Shah Nawaz and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial at the Red Fort.
• Bhulabhai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru and Nehru appeared tor the defence and the Muslim League also joined the countrywide protest.

Shimla Conference (June-July 1945):-
• It was proposed by Sir Wavell.
• Talks suggested setting up of a new Executive Council with only Indian members. The Viceroy and the Commander in chief would be the only non-Indian members of the council.
• Hindus & Muslims would have equal representation. Talks broke down due to Jinnah‘s demand for the Muslim League to have absolute choice in choosing all Muslim members and a demand for communal veto, though it had ministries only in Assam and Sind.

Cabinet Mission (March-June 1946):-
• Members: Wavell, Pathick Lawrence (Secretary of State), Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander.
• The Mission reasoned that the right of communal self-determination, if conceded to Muslims, also had to be granted to non-Muslims who formed majorities in West Bengal and Eastern Punjab, as well as in Assam proper.
• The Plan proposed rejection of the demand for a full fledged Pakistan. The other recommendations were:
(1) For a very loose union of all the Indian territories under a centre that would control merely the defence, the foreign affairs and the communications, leaving all other subjects to the existing Provincial Legislatures.
(2) Provincial Legislatures would elect a constitute assembly. The members would divide in three sections A, B and C while electing the Constitute Assembly.
• Jinnah was for compulsory while Nehru was for grouping only till the formation of a Constitute Assembly. On 29th July 1946, Jinnah withdrew his earlier acceptance of the plan and fixed 16 August 1946 as Direct Action Day. Calcutta, Noakhali, Garmukteshwar were the storm centers.

Interim Government:-
• It came into existence on 2nd September 1945 in accordance with Cabinet Mission’s proposal and was headed by J. L. Nehru and Muslim League refused to join it initially.
• Wavell persuaded the League leaders to join on 26 October 1946.
• 8th December 1946: Interim Governments begins its session with Liaqat Ali Khan of Muslim League as the Finance Minister.
• The interim government, obstructed by its League members and bureaucracy was reduced to a figurehead and was unable to control the communal carnage.

Attlee’s Announcement:-
• Prime Minister Attlee on 20 February 1947 announced that the British would withdraw from India 30 June, 1948 and Lord Mountbatten would replace Wavell.
• Partition of the country was implicit in the provision that it the Constituent Assembly was not fully representative then power would be transferred more than one Central Government.

Mountbatten Plan (3rd June Plan):-
• The Plan declared that power would be handed over by 15 August 1947 on the basis of Dominion Status to India and Pakistan.
• Boundary Commission headed by Radcliffe
• Independence for Bengal and accession of Hyderabad to Pakistan ruled out.
• Mountbatten Plan was to divide India but retain maximum unity.

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