Ascendancy of the Britishers
Advent of European Companies:-
• In 1453, land routes were blocked by Ottoman Turks. So, new sea routes discovered by Europeans to promote their business.
• Colombus of Spain discovered America where as in 1498, Vasco-da-Gama of Portugal discovered India. He came to India via Cape of Good Hope (Africa).
• First of all. Vasco-da-Gama reached to Calicut (Kerala or Kozhicode) where Zamorin ruler welcomed his arrival.
• The Portuguese soon established political power along the west coast of India. He was succeeded by Captain General Alfonso de Albuquerque who conquered Goa in 1510.
Sequence of Arrivals:-
Company Year H.Q./Capital
Portuguese East India Company (Formed by
Vasco-da-Gama) 1498 Cochin (1510-30)
Dutch East India Company 1602 East coast: Coromandal, Pullout, Bengal
English East lndia Company 1608 West coast: Surat, Bombay East coast : Coromandal Masulipattanum, Madras
French East lndia Company (
formed by Colbert) 1664 Surat(1668-73)
English East India Company:-
1600: Elizabeth l signed Charter for 15 years (monopoly trading rights)
1608: Captain William Hawkins carne at Jahangir’s court to seek permission to open a factory at Surat.
1612: Battle of Swally: English vs Portugal. In this battle, Portugal was defeated by the English and Surat was conquered.
1615-1618: James-1 sent ambassador, Thomas Roe in Jahangir’s court to obtain the permission to trade and erect factories in different part of the Empire.
1668: Estd. Bombay Factory.
1690: Sutanuti (Bengal) factory was founded by Job Charnock.
1700: In Calcutta, Fort William established and Calcutta became the British Capital.
1707: Rise of autonomous states led by his governors. These governors were Independent due to the death of Aurangzeb. Some of the Important Governors are:-
Bengal —— Murshid Quli Khan (1717)
Awadh —— Saadat Khan (1722)
Hyderabad —— Chin Qilich Khan (Nizam-ul-Mulk) (1724)
1740-1756: Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan found misuse of Dastaks and Fortification of factories. He prevented the English and the French from fortifying their factories at Calcutta and Chandranagore respectively. He was succeeded by his grandson Siraj-ud-Daulah.
THE EAST INDIA COMPANY &THE BENGAL NAWABS
• He seized the English factory at Kasimbazar, marched on to Calcutta, and occupied Fort William on June 20, 1756.
• On 2nd January I757, Treaty of Alinagar signed, whereby Sirai conceded practically demands. British then captured Chandernagore, the French settlement, in March 1757.
• On June 23rd 1757, Battle of Plassey was fought between Sirja-ud-Daulah and East India Company (Led by Clive). In this battle, Siraj was defeated due to the conspiracy and intrigue on the part of Man of Siraj.
Mir Jafar (1757-1760):-
• He was appointed by the company as eighth nawab of Bengal after Siraj.
• The Company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and also received the Zamindari of 24 Parganas.
• In the reign of Mir Jafar, Company explored maximum benefit. So, Jafar realized it and met with Dutch and again a battle was fought. In 1759-1760, battle of Bedara was fought between English and Dutch. In this battle, Dutch were defeated.
• After this battle, Mir Jafar, however, fell into arrears and was forced to abdicate in favour of his son-in-law Mir Qasim.
• In 1763, he was again placed on the throne.
Mir Qasim (1760-1764):-
• He shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Munger.
• Mir Qasim soon revolted as he was angry with the British for misusing the dastaks (free dutyPasses). However, having been defeated by the British.
• He formed confederacy with Shuja-ud-Daula, Awadh ruler and Shah Alam-2, Muhgal Emperor. These three allies were defeated by company army. This battle was one of the deceived battles of Indian history and it came to be known as Battle of Buxar.
• After Mir Jafar’s death his son Nizam-ud-daulah was placed on the throne and signed a treaty on 20th February. 1765 by which the Nawab was to disband most of his army and to administer Bengal through a Deputy Subahdar nominated bythe Company.
• Clive concluded two separate Treaties or Allahabad in 1765 with Shuja-ud-daulah & Shah Alam ll and acquired the diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. With this, Dual System of government started in Bengal.
• Later on, in 1772, the first Governor General of Bengal Warren Hastings ended the Dual System of government.
First War (1767-1769):-
• Mysore was a powerful state under Haider Ali. In 1769, the first Anglo-Mysore war was fought in which Haider Ali defeated the British and Treaty of Madras was signed between them. Haider Ali occupied almost the whole of Carnatic.
Second War (1780-1784):-
• Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe. Which was in Haider Ali’s territory? Haider Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot (Capital of Carnatic State)
• In December 1782, after the death of Haider Ali the war was carried on by his son Tipu Sultan.
• Treaty of Mangalore was signed by Tipu Sultan in I784 which ended the second Anglo-Mysore war.
Third War (1789-1792):-
• This war was fought between Tipu Sultan and English began in 1789 and ended in Tipu’s defeat 1792. This war was ended by signing of Treaty of seringapatnam, between Tipu Sultan and Lord Cornwallis. In this treaty, Tipu ceded half of his territories and two of his son’s as hostages of war.
Fourth War (1799):-
• In 1799, the British Army led by Lord Wellesley attacked and defeated Tipu Sultan in a brief but fierce war. He met a heroic end on 4th May 1799 while defending his capital Seringapatnam.
Anglo Sikh wars began after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June, 1839.
First War (1845-1846):-
• Lord Gough, the Comamnder-in-Chief and Lord Hardinge, the Governor General marched towards Ferozpur and declared a war on the Sikhs on December 13. 1845 and this war resulted in partial subjugation of Sikh empire.
• Sikhs were defeated in all the four battles at Mudki. Ferozpur, Aliwal and Sobraon. The Sikhs were forced to concede defeat and to sign the humiliating Treaty of Lahore on March 8, 1846.
Second War (1848-1849):-
• Dalhousie annexed Punjab. Sir John Lawrence became the first Chief Commissioner of Punjab.
ANGLO-FRENCH CARNATIC (ARCOT) WARS:-
• In the mid 18th century, owing to the unstable political situation in India. rivalry between the English and the French did not remain confined only to trade concerns but also assumed political overtones Thus, French and English were locked in a struggle for economic and political fortune in India which unfolded in the form of three Carnatic Wars in South India.
First War (1746-1748):-
• The French and the British companies clashed at Carnatic Dupleix was then the chief official of the French Company at Pondicherry The French opened hostilities by Sacking Fort Si George (Madras) and expelled all Englishhmen The Nawab of Carnatic sent an army but was defeated on the banks of river Adyar by the French Company under control of Dupleix.
• The terms of Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle (1748) brought the Austrian War of succession to a conclusion. Under the terms of this treaty. Madras was handed back to the English.
Second War (1749-1754):-
• Dupleix aligned with Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) and Chanda Sahib (Carnatic).
Robert Clive attacked Arcot, the Capital of Carnatic and besieged it.
• In December, 1754 the war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry.
Third War (1756-1763):-
• In 1756, the Anglo-French struggle again started in India as a reflection of the seven years war in Europe. The French government sent count de Lally to India in April, 1758. Lally captured Fort St. David in 1758 and attacked Tanjore.
• In January, 1760 English General Sir Eyre Coote defeated the French army in the Battle of Wandiwash.
• In January, 1761 the French army retreated to Pondicherry, but the English followed there and captured it. Mahe was also lost by the French to the British.
• With the conclusion of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 in Europe, the war also ended in India and foiled the dreams of the French to have an empire in India. Pondichery was returned to French by the Treaty of Paris.
First War (1775-1782):-
• Favouring the cause of Fiaghunath Rao for Peshwaship, English (Hastings) came in conflict with the Marathas and the first Anglo-Maratha war was fought.On being defeated, the British had to Sign the humiliating Convention of Wadgaon in 1779 by which the Company was required to give up all the advantages acquired by the Treaty Purandar.
• First Angli-Maratha war was began with the Treaty of Surat and ended with Treaty of Salbai.
Second War (1803-1805):-
• The Maratha’s Peshwa signed the Subsidiary Alliance Treaty of Bassein (1802).
• The Maratha confederacy, which did not like the idea challenged the British power but were defeated by the British.
Third War (1816-1818):-
• Lord Hastings was determined to proclaim British paramountcy in India. Hastings moved against Pindaris and transgressed the sovereignty of the Maratha Chief and the war began.
• The Marathas were decisively defeated.
Establishment of administrative control on India:-
Parliament of Britain started controlling administration of India through different acts.
The Regulating Act, 1773:-
• It was the ﬁrst attempt by the British Parliament to regulate the affairs of the Company in India. This act also brought an end to Dual system of Government in India.
• This was the first attempt towards Centralized Administration.
• In this act, Governor of Bengal became Governor- General for all British territories in India.
• Bombay and Madras Presidency subordinated to Bengal Presidency in certain matters. Supreme Court to be set up at Calcutta and also founded Calcutta Madarasa.
The Pitts India Act, 1784:-
• This Act gave the British Government supreme control over the Company’s affairs and its administration in India.
• It established dual system of governance
(i) Government by Board of Control
(ii) Government by Court of Directors
• The Board of Control was to guide and control the work of the Court of Directors.
• Presidencies of Madras and Bombay were subordinated to the Governor-General and Council of Bengal.
The Charter Act of 1813:-
• Trading monopoly of East India Company was restricted except in tea and trade with China.
• Under this act, one lakh rupees given annually for education.
The Charter Act of 1833:-
• It brought an end to Company’s trade monopoly even in tea and trade with China.
• The Act centralised the administration of India.
• The Governor-General of Bengal became the Governor-General of India (1st Governor-General of India was Lord William Bentinck).
• Civil Services was thrown open to the people of India.
• Regularized Opium Trade.
The Charter Act of 1853:-
• It extended life of the Company for an unspecified period.
• Law member was made a full member of the Executive Council of the Governor-General.
• Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual competitive examination (excluding Indians).
The Government of India Act, 1858:-
• Indian Administration transferred from Company to British crown i.e. end of rule of East India Company and beginning of direct rule of Crown.
• In this act, the Court of Directors and Board of Control abolished. Thus, the ‘Double Government’ introduced by the Pitt’s India Act of 1784 was finally ended. The doctrine of lapse was also withdrawn under this act.
• Governor-General was to be called the Viceroy and was the direct representative of the crown in India.
The Indian Councils Act, 1881:-
• Foundation of Indian legislature was laid down in1861 and the Policy oi association of Indians in legislation started.
• Under this act, the Civil Services became Indian Civil Services.
• Portfolio (or Cabinet) system in the Government of India was introduced.
• Viceroy could issue ordinances in case of emergency.
The Indian Councils Act, 1892:-
• Beginning of representative system in India.
• Council to have the power to discuss Budget and of addressing questions to the Executive.
The Indian Councils Act, 1909
(The Morley-Minto Reforms):-
• It introduced for the first time indirect elections to the Legislative Councils.
• Separate electorates were introduced for the Muslims.
The Government of India Act, 1919
(The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms):-
• Devolution Rules: Subjects of administration were divided into two categories – ‘Central’ and ‘Provincial’. All important subjects (like Railways and Finance) were brought under the category of Central, while matters relating to the administration of the Provinces were classified as Provincial.
• Diarchy system introduced in the Provinces.
• The Provincial subjects of administration were divided into two categories ‘Transferred’ and ‘Reserved’ subjects.
• Indian legislature became Bicameral for the first time.
• An official of the Hogh Commissioner of India was created in London.
Government of India Act 1935:-
• This Act provided for setting up of India comprising British Indian provinces and Indian States (Princely States). The joining or Princely States was voluntary and as a result, the federation did not come into existence.
• Dyarchy in the Provinces was replaced by Provincial autonomy. They were granted separate legal Identity.
• It made three fold division of powers 1 Federal, Provincial and Concurrent. Residuary powers were to be with the Governor-General.
• Dyarchy was introduced at the centre (e.g. department oi foreign affairs, defense were reserved for the Governor-General). The Indian Council of Secretary of State for India was abolished. Principle of separate electorate was extended to include Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians and Europeans.
• The Federal Bank (The Reserve Bank of India) and the Federal Court (Supreme Court of India) were established in 1f.935′ and 1937, respectively.
Indian Independence Act, 1947:-
• This Act did not lay down any provision for the administration of India.
• Partition of India and the establishment of two Dominions (India and Pakistan). Constituent Assembly of each Dominion would have unlimited powers to frame and adopt any Constitution.
• The office of the Secretary of State for India was to be abolished and his work was to be taken over by the Secretary of State for commonwealth affairs.
The Revolt of 1857:-
The Revolt of 1857 is an important landmark of Indian history which occurred during the governor-generalship of Lord Canning.
Causes of Revolt:-
• Grievances of Native Rulers Dalhousies annexation of States through Doctrine of Lapse.
• Abolition of titles and suspension of Pensions.
Grievances of Sepoys:-
• Discrimination in payment and promotions.
• Ill-treatment of the sepoys by the British officials.
• Refusal of the British to pay foreign service allowance (bhatta) while fighting in remote regions such as Punjab or Sindh.
• Religious objections of the high caste Hindu
• All these led to disaffection among the sepoys which manifested itself on a number of occasions in the form of mutinies before 1857. They were:
(i) Mutiny of the sepoys in Bengal in 1764.
(ii) Vellore Mutiny in 1806.
(m) Mutiny of the sepoys of the 47th Regiment at Barrackpore in 1824.
(iv) Mutinies of the 34th Native infantry (NI), the 22nd NI, the 66th NI and the 37th NI in 1844, 1849, 1850 and 1852 respectively.
Grievances of Orthodox & Conservative People:-
• Fear of the Indians (both Muslim and Hindu) due to the activities of the Christian missionaries and the protection and encouragement given to them by the British government.
• Humanitarian measures introduced by the government, e.g. abolition of sati (l829), legalization of widow remarriage (1856), protection of the civil rights of converts from Hinduism, Spread western education.
• Destruction of village industries and handicrafts due to the one-way free trade policy of the British.
• The disproportionate ratio of the sepoys to the Europeans in the British Indian Army (6:1).
• Introduction of the Enfield rifle (January, 1857) with greased (supposedly with the fat of cows and pigs) Cartridge, whose end had to be bitten off before loading it into the rifle caused, disaffection among the sepoys and led to disobeyed of orders by the sepoys of the 19th Native Infantry stationed at Berhampur of February 26. 1857, and its disbandment by the British Government (Colonel Mitchell-its commanding officer).
• It also led to the mutiny of Mangal Pandey. A sepoy of the 34th Native infantry stationed at Barrackpore, on 29th March, 1857 (Pandey severely wounded Lt. Baugh, Adjutant to the C.O. of Barrackpore, General Hearsey). Course of the Revolt
S.No. Date Event
1. 10 May,1857 Meerut mutiny of sepoys, they gave the slogan ‘Delhi Chalo’
2. 10-30 May,1857 Revolt spread to Delhi, Bombay and UP
3. June,1857 Mutinies at Gwalior, Bharatpur, Jhansi and Lucknow.
4. 20 Sept. 1857 English recaptured Delhi; revolt further breaks out in Central India.
5. 6 Dec. , 1857 Sir Colin Campbell won the battle of Kanpur
6. March, 1858 Campbell captured Lucknow
7. April, 1858 English recaptured Jhansi
8. June, 1858 Rani of Jhansi died
9. July-Dec, 1858 English authority was re-established