Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun is order to avoid repetition of the latter.
Kinds of Pronoun
- Personal Pronoun: – word used in place of a noun referring to persons ‘I, we, you, he, she, it, they’ etc.
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|Personal||Subject||Object||Possessive Adjectives||Possessive Pronouns|
- Demonstrative Pronouns: – Words used for nouns to point out objects.
This, that, these, those’ etc.
(i) This is my book
(ii) That is her house.
But in the following examples ‘This’ and ‘That’ are used as demonstrative adjectives.
(i) This book
(ii) That house
- Relative Pronouns: – Words used for nouns to express functions relating to ‘who, which, that, whose, whom’ etc.
(i) The man who has just entered the room is my friend.
(ii) The book that I bought is very costly.
- Interrogative Pronouns: – Words used for nouns to ask questions.
Who, What, Which, Whose, Whom.
(i) Who took my bag?
(ii) Whom did you meet?
(iii) Whose books are these?
(iv) What are you doing?
(v) What shirt is this? (Interrogative adjective)
(vi) Whose book is this? (Interrogative adjective)
- Indefinite Pronouns: – Words used for nouns in vague and general meaning ‘everybody, nobody, somebody, cither, neither, all, much, several, each, others, another’ etc.
- Reflexive Pronouns: – Words used as forms of personal pronouns for emphasis ‘myself, ourselves, himself, themselves, yourself’ etc.
- Distributive Pronouns: – Used for individuals and objects referring to them as one at a time. ‘either, neither, each, every, none, anyone’, etc.
(i) Either of the two sisters is staying here.
(ii) Neither of his arms is defective.
(iii) You can take either room. (Distributive adjective)
(iv) You can talk to each boy. (Distributive adjective)
- Reciprocal Pronouns: – Words used to point out mutual relationship. ‘each other, one another’ etc.
(i) Both the brothers love each other.
(ii) Indians should not fight with one another.
Rules of Pronoun
When the subject of the verb is the receiver of the action, the action is said to be reflected. Such verbs are used reflexively.
Acquit, absent, avail, reconcile, amuse, resign, avenge, revenge, enjoy, exert, apply adapt, adjust, pride overreach, etc, are used reflexively. E.g.:
(i) You should avail yourself, of every chance in life. (Correct)
(ii) They enjoyed picture last evening. (No reflexive pronoun is needed)
(iii) They enjoyed during summer vacation. (Place ‘themselves’ after ‘enjoyed’)
(iv) He resigned himself to his failure. (Correct)
(v) The former D.M. acuqitted very efficiently. (Place ‘himself’ after ‘acquitted’).
(vi) He was determined to avenge the death of his wife. (Correct)
The following verbs are not used reflexively.
‘Keep, stop, turn, qualify, bathe, move, rest, hide’ are not used reflexively. E.g.:
(i) You should keep yourself from bad boys. (remove ‘yourself’)
(ii) He has qualified himself for the post. (remove ‘himself’)
(iii) He hid himself in the room. (remove ‘himself’) (Int. verb)
(iv) The thief hid money under the carpet. (Correct) (Tran. Verb)
A reflexive pronoun cannot act as a subject or object of a verb unless it is preceded by pronoun or noun concerned, E.g.:
(i) Myself will see to it that you get your share of property. (Change ‘myself’ into ‘I’)
(ii) Yourself and he reached there in time. (Change ‘yourself’ into ‘you’)
(iii) I myself like him. (Correct)
(iv) Raj will do it for myself and my sister. (Change ‘myself’ to ‘me’)
The verb ‘to be’ should be followed by subjective form when the complement is
(i) It is me who have brought you home. (Change ‘me’ into ‘I’)
(i) Was it her who did it for you? (Change ‘her’ into ‘she’)
(ii) It will be us who will buy a new house. (Change ‘us’ into ‘we’)
Verb and Prepositions are followed by objective case of a pronoun.
(i) Between you and I Suhani is intelligent. (Say ‘me’)
(i) She is teaching Rohit and she. (Say ‘her’)
(iii) Let they go (Say ‘them’)
(a) God manners require that the order of singular pronouns should be second person,
third person and first person (231).
(b) But in plural ‘we’ is used before ‘you’ and ‘they’ after ‘you’ (123). The latter order is also observed while referring to unpleasant acts. E.g.:
(i) I and you will attend her wedding tomorrow (Correct use is ‘You’ and ‘I’)
(ii) He and you will share the mangoes. (Use ‘you’ and ‘he’)
(iii) You, Mohan and I will watch movie tonight. (Correct)
(iv) We, you and they are leaving for Mumbai tomorrow. (Correct)
(v) You and I will be punished. (Unpleasant act, use ‘I’ and ‘you’)
Use of possessive adjectives (Possessive case of the pronoun)
(A) When two subjects are joined by- as well as, together with, along with, and not, in addition to, like, unlike, with, rather than, except, no less than, nothing, but, more (noun), than one, the possessive case of the pronoun (possessive adjective) is used in accordance with the first subject.
(B) When two subjects are joined by- ‘either-or, neither-nor, not only but also, none-but.’ the possessive case of pronoun (possessive adjective) is used according to the nearest subject.
(C) When the pronouns- each, every, neither, either, anyone, many a, more than one, (possessive adjective) are used as subject, the possessive case should be third person singular. They may refer to two or more than two objects or persons.
(D) When ‘one’ is used as a subject, the possessive case of the pronoun should be according to one. (i.e. one’s)
(E) When a pronoun is used for more than one noun or pronouns of different person, the possessive case is in the form of first person plural (our) and second person plural (your). E.g.:
(i) Each boy and each teacher is required to bring their luggage. (Use ‘his’ in place of ‘their’)
(ii) One should do his duty sincerely. (Use ‘one’s’ in place of ‘his’)
(iii) Neither the students nor the teacher was playing in their proper uniform. (Use ‘his’ in place of ‘their’)
(iv) Reena as well as her children has returned to their home. (Use ‘her’ for ‘their’)
(v) Only you and I have brought your books. (Use ‘our’ for ‘your’)
A noun or pronoun in the possessive case should not be used sometimes with the nouns such as- separation, leave, excuse, mention, report, pardon, sight, favour.’ E.g.:
(i) Your separation is very painful to me. (Say ‘separation from you’)
(ii) At his sight the robbers fled. (Say ‘At the sight of him’)
(iii) i beg your favour, please. (favour of/from you)
(iv) She did make mention of you. (Correct, your mention’ is wrong.)
‘Either, neither, each other’- are used in speaking of two persons or things.
‘Anyone, none, one another’- are used while referring to more than two persons or things.
(i) Indians should never fight with each other. (Use ‘one another’ in place of ‘each other’)
(ii) Anyone of his eyes is defective. (Use ‘either’ in place of ‘anyone’)
(iii) None of his arms was wounded in the accident. (Use ‘neither’ for ‘none’)
(iv) Either of his four sons has sold his property after his death. (Use ‘anyone’ for ‘Either’)
While writing question tag, the subject and verb must be according to the main sentence.
(i) Our teacher is intelligent, isn’t it? (Use ‘isn’t he?’)
(ii) The boys are not going on picnic, are they? (Correct)
(iii) They went to Delhi yesterday, isn’t it? (Use ‘didn’t they?’)
(iv) She comes here daily, does she? (Use ‘doesn’t she?)
(v) She will help me, won’t she? (Correct)
(vi) I shall not play Shan’t I? (Arn’t is not correct)
Use of Both
‘Both’ should be followed by ‘and’ and not by ‘as well as’, Negative is avoided with Both E.g.:
(i) Both you as well as my brother are going to attend her marriage tomorrow. (Use ‘and’ in place of ‘as well as’)
(ii) Both of them are not going there. (Incorrect)
Neither of them is going there. (Correct)
‘Which’ is used in place of ‘Who’ when we are referring to a choice between two or than two things or persons. E.g.:
(i) Of the two sisters who is the more intelligent. (Use ‘which’ in place of ‘who’)
(ii) Who is your father in the crowd? (Use ‘which’ in place of ‘who’)
(iii) Who is better of the two dancers in our society? (Place ‘the’ before better and change ‘who’ into ‘which’)
Possessive case- we don’t use noun after possessive case of a pronoun. E.g.:
(i) This book is mine = This is my book
(ii) This shirt is yours = This is your shirt.
(iii) Our is a populous country (Say ‘Ours’)
The relative pronoun should be expressed according to its relation with the verb of the adjective clause. ‘Who’ is used as a subject of a verb of adjective clause and ‘whom’ is used as an object of a verb of adjective clause. E.g.:
(i) He was talking of the women who, he said, he met in America. (Use ‘whom’ in place of ‘who’)
(ii) She is the kind of lady whom, every body knows, is intelligent (Use ‘who’ in place of ‘whom’)
The use of ‘But’ as a relative pronoun. E.g.:
(i) There was none but wept. (Who did not weep)
(ii) There is no country but is corrupt. (Which is not corrupt)
The use of the ‘same’ as pronoun is wrong. E.g.:
(i) I shall give you a book and the same is very useful. (Say ‘it’ for the ‘same’)
(ii) He bought a house and is living in the same. (Say ‘it’ for the ‘same’)
‘What’ is used without an antecedent and it refers to things only. E.g.:
(i) It is incredible what she said.
(ii) I don’t believe in the words what she uttered. (Use ‘which/ that’ in place of ‘what’)
(iii) I don’t believe in what you say. (Correct)
(iv) I know which you say. (Say ‘what’)