Meaning: durable, resilient, tough, hard-wearing, long- lasting, well made.
Deﬁnition: (of an object) sturdy in construction.
Usage: a robust metal cabinet.
Meaning: maybe, possibly, conceivably, feasibly
Deﬁnition: used to express uncertainty or possibility.
Usage: perhaps I should have been frank with him
Meaning: high, tall, lofty, sky-high, steep.
Deﬁnition: extremely tall, especially in comparison with the surroundings.
Usage: Hari looked up at the towering buildings.
Meaning: ancestor, forefather, forebear, parant.
Deﬁnition: a person who originates a cultural or intellectual movement.
Usage: his children were the progenitors of many of Scotland’s noble families.
Meaning: activity , progress.
Deﬁnition: the quality of being characterized by vigorous activity and progress.
Usage: the dynamism and strength of the economy.
Meaning: lopsided, unsymmetrical, crooked.
Deﬁnition: having parts which fail to correspond to one another in shape, size, or arrangement; lacking symmetry.
Usage: the church has an asymmetrical plan with an aisle only on one side.
Meaning: buttress, support, brace, underpin, reinforce
Deﬁnition: support or keep in position
Usage: she propped her chin in the palm of her right hand
Meaning: diligent, careful, meticulous, thorough, sedulous, attentive
Deﬁnition: showing great care and perseverance.
Usage: She was assiduous in pointing out every feature
Meaning: intennittent, irregular, sporadic, periodic, ﬁtful
Deﬁnition: occurring occasionally and at irregular intervals.
Usage: volcanic activity is highly episodic in nature
Meaning: impermeable, impenetrable, waterproof
Deﬁnition: not allowing ﬂuid to pass through.
Usage: an impervious layer of basaltic clay
Meaning: ﬁckle, inconstant, changeable, variable, unstable, mercurial, erratic
Deﬁnition: given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behaviour.
Usage: A capricious and often brutal administration
Meaning: seen, factual, actual, real, verifable, ﬁrst- hand
Definition: based on, concemed with, or veriﬁable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic.
Usage: They provided considerable empirical evidence to support their argiment
Meaning: abstiuse, obscure, arcane, cryptic, difficult, puzzling
Deﬁnition: intended for or likely to be understood by only a small number of people with a specialized knowledge or interest.
Usage: Esoteric philosophical debates
Meaning: unavoidable, certain, sure, fated, inexorable
Deﬁnition: certain to happen; unavoidable.
Usage: war was inevitable.
Meaning: showy, loud, fancy, ornate, affected, actorly, kitsch.
Deﬁnition: characterized by pretentious or showy display; designed to impress.
Usage: A simple design that is glamorous without being ostentatious.
Meaning: moving, sad, touching, tearful, pitiful, tragic.
Deﬁnition: evoking a keen sense of sadness or regret.
Usage: A poignant reminder of the passing of time.
Meaning: Sardonic, ironic, satirical
Deﬁnition: marked by or given to using irony in order to mock or convey contempt
Usage: Making sarcastic comments
Meaning: conceited, egoistic, egocentric, self-loving
Deﬁnition: having or showing an excessively high opinion of one‘s appearance, abilities, or worth.
Usage: Their ﬂattery made him @
Meaning: Injury, damage, hurt, wound, sore, cut, lesion
Deﬁnition: physical injury.
Usage: Rupture of the diaphragm caused by blunt trauma.
Meaning: distant, detached, unresponsive, remote, stuffy
Deﬁnition: not friendly or forthcoming; cool and distant.
Usage: They were courteous but faintly M
Meaning: tireless, untiring, unwearied, unﬂagging.
Deﬁnition: (of a person or their efforts) persisting tirelessly.
Usage: An indefatigable defender of human rights.
Meaning: slow, unhurried, tardy, lax, slack, idle, lazy.
Deﬁnition: slow to act.
Usage: He had been dilatory in appointing a solicitor.
Meaning: disciplinarian, taskmaster, tyrant, drill sergeant
Deﬁnition: a person who demands complete obedience; a strict disciplinarian.
Usage: The woman in charge was a martinet who treated all those beneath her like children
Meaning: illegal, illicit, illegitimate, against the law.
Deﬁnition: not conforming to, permitted by, or recognized by law or rules.
Usage: The use of unlawful violence.
Meaning: legacy, inheritance, endowment, estate, heritage, bestowal, donation.
Deﬁnition: the action of bequeathing something.
Usage: A painting acquired by bequest.
Meaning: credulous, trustful, naive, innocent, ignorant, simple, unguarded.
Deﬁnition: easily persuaded to believe something; credulous.
Usage: an attempt to persuade a gullible public to spend their money.
Meaning: misleading, illusory, illusive, ambiguous, delusive.
Deﬁnition: giving an appearance or impression different from the true one; misleading.
Usage: He put the question with deceptive casualness.
Meaning: difﬁcult to catch/ﬁnd, difﬁcult to track down.
Deﬁnition: difﬁcult to ﬁnd, catch, or achieve.
Usage: Success will become ever more elusive.
Meaning: despotism, absolutism, autocracy, dictatorship.
Deﬁnition: cruel and oppressive government or rule.
Usage: Refugees ﬂeeing tyranny and oppression.
Meaning: refund, repayment, partial refund.
Deﬁnition: a partial refund to someone who has paid too much for tax, rent, or a utility.
Usage: The scheme eases the move to the council tax by giving rebates in the ﬁrst year.
Meaning: sticking, adherence, gluing, ﬁxing, union, festening.
Deﬁnition: the action or process of adhering to a surface or object.
Usage: The adhesion of the gum strip to the paper.
Meaning: genius, expert, master, artist, doyen.
Definition: a person highly skilled in music or another artistic pursuit.
Usage: A celebrated clarinet virtuoso.
Meaning: ragamuffin, guttersnipe
Deﬁnition: a homeless, neglected, or abandoned person, especially a child.
Usage: she is foster-mother to various M and strays
Meaning: Secondary, underlying, undisclosed, unexpressed, unapparent, hidden, covert
Deﬁnition: existing beyond what is obvious or admitted; intentionally hidden.
Usage: could there be an ulterior motive behind his request?
Meaning: revealing, revelatory, meaningful, signiﬁcant, meaning
Deﬁnition: revealing, indicating, or betraying something.
Usage: The telltale bulge of a concealed weapon
Meaning: daze, state of senselessness.
Deﬁnition: a state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility.
Usage: A drunken stupor.
Meaning: revoke, repeal, cancel, overtrun, annul, withdraw.
Deﬁnition: revoke, cancel, or repeal (a law, order, or agreement).
Usage: the government eventually rescinded the directive.
Meaning: rancor, ill feeling, bad blood, animosity, bitterness.
Deﬁnition: bitterness or ill feeling.
Usage: the AGM dissolved into acrimony .
Meaning: decrease, decline, reduce, lessen.
Deﬁnition: make or become less.
Usage: The new law is expected to diminish the government’s chances.
Meaning: merriment, high spirits, cheer, gaiety, fun, jollity, joy.
Deﬁnition: amusement, especially as expressed in laughter.
Usage: his six-foot frame shook with M
Meaning: bodily, fleshly, carnal, human, mortal, earthly
Deﬁnition: relating to a person‘s body, especially as opposed to their spirit.
Usage: He was frank about his corporeal appetites
Meaning: quip, witticism, gem, jest, pun, sally.
Definition: a pithy saying or remark expressing an idea in a clever and amusing way.
Usage: a Wildean epigram.
Meaning: admirable, worthy, deserving, noteworthy, reputable, sterling.
Deﬁnition: (of an action, idea, or aim) deserving praise and commendation.
Usage: laudable though the aim might be, the results have been criticized.
Meaning: unwilling, disinclined, unenthusiastic, grudging, resisting.
Deﬁnition: unwilling and hesitant; disinclined.
Usage: She seemed reluctant to answer.
Meaning: Vote, ballot, referendum.
Deﬁnition: the direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.
Usage: the administration will hold a plebiscite for the approval of constitutional reforms.
Meaning: non-professional, layman, layperson.
Deﬁnition: a person who engages in a pursuit, especially a sport, on an unpaid basis.
Usage: it takes ﬁve years for a top amateur to become a real Tour de France rider.
Meaning: drive out, cast out, expel.
Deﬁnition: rid (a person or place) of a supposed evil spirit.
Usage: infants were exorcised prior to baptism.
Meaning: adversary, opponent, enemy, foe, rival, competitor.
Deﬁnition: a person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversary.
Usage: the woman was forcing her antagonist’s face into the mud.
Meaning: anomaly, deviation, abnormality, variation, quirk.
Deﬁnition: a departure from what is normal, usual, or expected, typically an unwelcome one.
Usage: they described the outbreak of violence in the area as an aberration.
Meaning: curt, abrupt, blunt, short, terse, brisk, crisp.
Deﬁnition: abmpt or ofﬂiand in speech or manner.
Usage: She could be brusque and impatient.
Meaning: eccentric, odd, outlandish, offbeat, zany, weird.
Deﬁnition: having or characterized by peculiar or unexpected traits or aspects.
Usage: Her sense of humour was decidedly quirky.
Meaning: survey, exploration, observation, probe, scan.
Deﬁnition: military observation of a region to locate an enemy or ascertain strategic features.
Usage: An excellent aircraft for low-level I‘€COl’lll3lSS3I1C€.
Meaning: Dull, boring, tedious, monotomous, banal, ordinary, everyday.
Deﬁnition: lacking excitement or variety; boringly monotonous.
Usage: humdrum routine work.
Meaning: renovate, redecorate, refurbish, recondition, rehabilitate, rebuild, overhaul.
Deﬁnition: give new and improved form, structure, or appearance to.
Usage: An attempt to revamp the museum‘s image.
Meaning: desire, crave, have one’s heart set on.
Deﬁnition: yearn to possess (something, especially something belonging to another).
Usage: I Let one of their smart bags.
Meaning: Accidentally, by accident, unwittingly.
Deﬁnition: without intention; accidentally.
Usage: His name had been inadvertently omitted from the list.
Meaning: misunderstand, misinterpret, misconceive, miss, confuse, confound.
Deﬁnition: interpret (a person‘s words or actions) wrongly.
Usage: my advice was deliberately misconstrued.
Meaning: Feeling, relaxed, calm.
Deﬁnition: (of a person or manner) feeling or appearing casually calm and relaxed; not displaying
anxiety, interest, or enthusiasm.
Usage: She gave a nonchalant shrug.
Meaning: Connection, focal point.
Deﬁnition: a connection or series of connections linking two or more things.
Usage: The nexus between industry and political power.
Meaning: incendiarism, pyromania, ﬁre-raising, ﬁrebombing.
Deﬁnition: the criminal act of deliberately setting fire to property.
Usage: Police are treating the ﬁre as M.
Meaning: Insolvent, without, denuded of, vacant of.
Deﬁnition: completely lacking in a particular good quality.
Usage: His father went bankrupt and the family had to sell their home.
Meaning: Plentiful, copious, ample, profuse, rich, lavish, liberal, bountiful, bumber.
Deﬁnition: existing or available in large quantities; plentiful.
Usage: there was abundant evidence to support the theory.
Meaning: Absolution, clearing, exoneration, exculpation.
Deﬁnition: a judgement or verdict that a person is not guilty of the crime with which they have been charged.
Usage: the trial resulted in an acquittal.
Meaning: Basic, elementary, introductory, early, primary, initial, ﬁrst.
Deﬁnition: involving or limited to basic principles.
Usage: He received a rudimentary education.
Meaning: hesitation, compunction, reservation, thought.
Deﬁnition: a feeling of doubt or hesitation with regard to the morality or propriety of a course of action.
Usage: I had no scruples about eavesdropping.
Meaning: misleading, deceptive, false, unsound.
Deﬁnition: superﬁcially plausible, but actually wrong.
Usage: A specious argument.
Meaning: finn, tight, fast, clinging, good.
Deﬁnition: tending to keep a ﬁrm hold of something; clinging or adhering closely.
Usage: A tenacious grip.
Meaning: indescribable, beyond words, unthinkable, inconceivable.
Deﬁnition: too great or awful to describe.
Usage: Moments of unutterable grief.
Meaning: dissenting, differing, discordant, negative.
Deﬁnition: in opposition to a majority or ofﬁcial opinion.
Usage: dissentient voices were castigated as ‘hopeless bureaucrats.
Meaning: scepticism, doubt, mistrust, distrust.
Deﬁnition: an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism.
Usage: public cynicism about politics.
Meaning: detestable, hateful, loathsome, execrable.
Deﬁnition: inspiring disgust and loathing; repugnant.
Usage: Racism was abhorrent to us all.
Meaning: reject, repudiate, abandon, resign.
Deﬁnition: formally declare one‘s abandonment of (a claim, right, or possession).
Usage: Isabella offered to renounce her son’s claim to the French Crown.
Meaning: Strange, peculiar, odd, funny, curious, offbeat, outlandish, queer.
Deﬁnition: very strange or unusual.
Usage: a bizarre situation.
Meaning: abusive, vituperative, derogatory, pejorative, libelous
Deﬁnition: making or spreading scandalous claims about someone with the intention of damaging their reputation.
Usage: A scurrilous attack on his integrity.
Meaning: slander, libel, character assassination, calumniation.
Deﬁnition: the making of false and defamatory statements about someone in order to damage their reputation; slander.
Usage: A bitter struggle marked by calumny and litigation.
Meaning: plentiful, copious, ample, profuse, rich, liberal, opulent.
Deﬁnition: existing or available in large quantities; plentiful.
Usage: There was abundant evidence to support the theory.
Meaning: clap, cheer, whistle, praise, commend, salute.
Deﬁnition: show approval or praise by clapping.
Usage: The crowd whistled and applauded.
Meaning: absolve, clear, acquit, discharge , release, relive, free.
Deﬁnition: (of an ofﬁcial body) absolve (someone) from blame for a fault or wrongdoing.
Usage: an inquiry exonerated those involved.
Meaning: praiseworthy, admirable, estimable, creditable, excellent.
Deﬁnition: deserving reward or praise.
Usage: A medal for meritorious conduct.
Meaning: rebuke, reproof, reproval, admonition, scolding.
Deﬁnition: the expression of disapproval or disappointment.
Usage: He gave her a look of reproach.
Meaning: reserve, restraint, inhibition, shyness, modesty.
Deﬁnition: the quality of being reticent; reserve.
Usage: The traditional emotional reticence of the British.
Meaning: Ploy, stratagem, tactic, move, device, scheme, trick
Deﬁnition: an action intended to deceive someone; a trick
Usage: Emma tried to think of a M to get Paul out of the house
Meaning: Foretall, prevent, secure.
Deﬁnition: take action in order to prevent (an anticipated event) happening; forestall.
Usage: The government preempted a coup attempt.
Meaning: bittemess, spite, hate, ill will, vitriol.
Deﬁnition: bitterness or resentfulness, especially when long standing.
Usage: He spoke without rancour.
Meaning: hermit, ascetic.
Deﬁnition: a person who lives a solitary life and tends to avoid other people.
Usage: She has turned into a virtual recluse.
Meaning: contrition, repentance, gniilt, sorrow, compunction.
Deﬁnition: deep regret or guilt for a wrong committed.
Usage: They were ﬁlled with remorse and shame.
Meaning: physical, camal, bodily, animal.
Deﬁnition: of or arousing gratiﬁcation of the senses and physical, especially sexual, pleasure.
Usage: The production of the ballet is sensual and assionate.
Meaning: rise and fall, surge, wave, billow, roll, swell, ripple.
Deﬁnition: move with a smooth wave-like motion.
Usage: Her body undulated to the thumping rhythm of the music.
Meaning: cautious, careful, chary, alert, prudent.
Deﬁnition: feeling or showing caution about possible dangers or problems.
Usage: Dogs which have been mistreated often remain wary of strangers.
Meaning: hackneyed, banal, vapid, ordinary, predictable.
Definition: (of a remark or idea) lacking originality or freshness; dull on account of overuse.
Usage: This point may now seem obvious and tril.
Meaning: Slow, unhurried, tardy, lax, sluggish, idle, indolent.
Deﬁnition: slow to act.
Usage: He had been dilatory in appointing a solicitor.
Meaning: Fundamental, basic, main, chief, primary, prime, ﬁrst.
Deﬁnition: of the greatest importance; fundamental.
Usage: Two cardinal points must be borne in mind.
Meaning: Brag, show-off, trumpeter, poser, egotist.
Deﬁnition: a person who boasts about their achievements or possessions.
Usage: braggart men.
Meaning: Relieve, ease, alleviate, smother, lessen, lower
Deﬁnition: make (an unpleasant feeling) less intense
Usage: The letter assuaged the fears of most members
Meaning: extreme/dire poverty, pennilessness, impecuniousness, impoverishment, indigence
Deﬁnition: the state of being very poor; extreme poverty.
Usage: He couldn’t face another year of penury.
Meaning: Slight, ﬂimsy, weak, fragile, shaky.
Deﬁnition: very weak or slight.
Usage: The tenuous link between interest rates and investment.
Meaning: murky, muddy, thick.
Deﬁnition: (of a liquid) cloudy, opaque, or thick with suspended matter.
Usage: The turbid estuary.
Meaning: wordy, garrulous, talkative, voluble, effusive.
Deﬁnition: (using or expressed in more words than are needed.
Usage: Much academic language is obscure and verbose.
Meaning: revere, respect, worship, hallow, deify.
Deﬁnition: regard with great respect; revere.
Usage: Philip of Beverley was venerated as a saint.
Meaning: Sticky, gummy, tacky, sympy.
Deﬁnition: having a thick, sticky consistency between solid and liquid; having a high viscosity
Usage: Viscous lava.