Meaning: Suspension, remission, reserve, suspense.
Deﬁnition: a state of temporary disuse or suspension.
Usage: Matters were held in abeyance pending further €nC]LllI‘l€S
Meaning: dither, teeter, temporize, hesitate, ﬂuctuate.
Deﬁnition: waver between different opinions or actions; be indecisive.
Usage: I vacillated between teaching and journalism.
Meaning: equivalent to, equal to, amounting to, as good as, more or less, synonymous with, virtually the same as, much the same as.
Deﬁnition: equivalent in seriousness to; virtually the same as.
Usage: The resignations were tantamount to an admission of guilt.
Meaning: Closeness, nearness, presence, propinquity.
Deﬁnition: a nearness in space, time, or relationship.
Usage: Do not operate microphones in close proximity to television sets.
Meaning: ample, profuse, generous, liberal, lavish.
Deﬁnition: complimentary or ﬂattering to an excessive degree.
Usage: The press are embarrassingly fulsome in their appreciation.
Meaning: praise enthusiastically, go into raptures about/over, wax lyrical about, sing the praises of, praise to the skies, heap praise on.
Deﬁnition: praise enthusiastically.
Usage: He extolled the virtues of the Russian peoples.
Meaning: tasteless, unﬂavoured, bland, weak, thin.
Deﬁnition: lacking ﬂavour; weak or tasteless.
Usage: Mugs of insipid coffee.
Meaning: Penetrating, acute, sharp, keen, canny, clever, smart, quick.
Deﬁnition: (of a person or mental process) intelligently analytical and clear-thinking.
Usage: She was an incisive critic.
Meaning: idolization, idolizing, fetishization, worship, worshipping, adulation, adoration, adoring, reverence,
Deﬁnition: extreme admiration, love, or reverence for something or someone.
Usage: We must not allow our idolatry of art to obscure issues of political signiﬁcance.
Meaning: scorn, deride, slight, undervalue.
Deﬁnition: consider to be unworthy of one‘s consideration.
Usage: He disdained his patients as an inferior rabble.
Meaning: Honour, recognition, privilege, award, gift, title.
Deﬁnition: an award or privilege granted as a special honour or as an acknowledgement of merit.
Usage: The hotel has won numerous accolades.
Meaning: pungent, bitter, sharp, sour, tart, harsh, acid, acidic.
Deﬁnition: unpleasantly bitter or pungent.
Usage: Acrid smoke.
Meaning: Supplement, addition, accompaniment, complement, additive, accessory.
Deﬁnition: a thing added to something else as a supplementary rather than an essential part.
Usage: Computer technology is an adjunct to learning.
Meaning: pillow, cushion, support, pad, rest.
Deﬁnition: a long, thick pillow that is placed under other pillows for support.
Usage: the fall in interest rates is starting to bolster conﬁdence.
Meaning: Speaker, lecturer, declaimer.
Deﬁnition: a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.
Usage: A theatrically effective orator.
Meaning: Objector, paciﬁer, conscientious.
Deﬁnition: a person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable.
Usage: she was a committed paciﬁst all her life.
Meaning: Suggest, smack of, have a suggestion of.
Deﬁnition: have a suggestion or trace of (a quality or attribute, typically one considered bad).
Usage: Their genuﬂections savoured of superstition and popery.
Meaning: Excess, surplus, abundance, oversupply, avalanche, deluge.
Deﬁnition: an excessive amount of something.
Usage: A surfeit of food and drink.
Meaning: untalkative, reticent, quiet, mute, dumb, inaiticulate.
Deﬁnition: (of a person) reserved or uncommunicative in speech; saying little.
Usage: After such gatherings she would be taciturn and morose.
Meaning: Joke, quip, witty remark, ﬂash of wit, jest, pun, pleasantry.
Deﬁnition: a witty remark.
Usage: Maurice roared with laughter at his own.
Meaning: resign, retire, quit, stand down.
Deﬁnition: (of a monarch) renounce one‘s throne.
Usage: in 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated as German emperor.
Meaning: waste, become emaciate, wither, shrivel, wil.
Definition: (of body tissue or an organ) waste away, especially as a result of the degeneration of cells, or become vestigial during evolution.
Usage: The calf muscles will atrophy.
Meaning: Accepted truth, general truth, dictum, tniism, principle.
Deﬁnition: a statement or proposition which is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-
Usage: The axiom that sport builds character.
Meaning: Shine, brighten, smooth,glaze.
Deﬁnition: polish (something, especially metal) by rubbing.
Usage: Highly burnished armour.
Meaning: disaster, calamity, tragedy, art of God, crisis.
Deﬁnition: a sudden violent political or social upheaval.
Usage: The cataclysm of the First World War.
Meaning: Meet, intersect, cross, connect, link up, coincide.
Deﬁnition: (of lines) tend to meet at a point.
Usage: a pair of lines of longitude is parallel at the equator but converge toward the poles.
Meaning: describe, set forth, set out, present, outline, depict, portray, represent.
Definition: describe or portray (something) precisely.
Usage: The law should delineate and prohibit behaviour which is socially abhorrent.
Meaning: underhand, deceitful, dishonest, dubious, dirty.
Deﬁnition: Showing a skilful use of underhand tactics to achieve goals.
Usage: he‘s as devious as a politician needs to be.
Meaning: exhaust, tire, weary, devitalize, drain, sap, weaken, enfeeble.
Deﬁnition: make (someone) feel drained of energy or vitality.
Usage: Enervating heat.
Meaning: abstruse, obscure, arcane, cryptic, Delphic.
Deﬁnition: intended for or likely to be understood by only a small number of people with a specialized knowledge or interest.
Usage: Esoteric philosophical debates.
Meaning: inborn, natural, inbred, inherent, intrinsic, intuitive, untaught.
Deﬁnition: inborn; natural.
Usage: Her innate capacity for organization.
Meaning: Severe, harsh, stiff, reserved, remote, serious.
Deﬁnition: severe or strict in manner or attitude.
Usage: he was an austere man, with a rigidly puritanical outlook.
Meaning: burdensome, heavy, awkward, oppressive.
Deﬁnition: (of a task or responsibility) involving a great deal of effort, trouble, or difficulty.
Usage: He found his duties increasingly onerous.
Meaning: deliberate, willful, malicious, spiteful, vicious, evil.
Deﬁnition: (of a cmel or violent action) deliberate and unprovoked.
Usage: Sheer Wanton vandalism.
Meaning: Talkative, voluble, wordy, rambling.
Deﬁnition: Tending to talk a great deal; talkative.
Usage: Never loquacious, Sarah was now totally lost for words.
Meaning: Embarrass, shame, abash, appal, crush.
Definition: Cause (someone) to feel very embarrassed or ashamed.
Usage: She was mortiﬁed to see her wrinkles in the mirror.
Meaning: damnation, eternal punishment.
Deﬁnition: (in Christian theology) a state of etemal punishment and damnation into which a sinful and unrepentant person passes after death.
Usage: She used her last banknote to buy herself a square meal before perdition.
Meaning: atonement, expiation, self-mortiﬁcation, penalty.
Definition: punishment inﬂicted on oneself as an outward expression of repentance for wrongdoing.
Usage: He had done public penance for those hasty words.
Meaning: Change, alteration, transformation, shift, switch, turn.
Deﬁnition: a change of circumstances or fortune, typically one that is unwelcome or unpleasant.
Usage: Her husband’s sharp vicissitudes of fortune.
Meaning: meticulous, careful, diligent, attentive, studious, rigorous.
Deﬁnition: showing great attention to detail or correct behaviour.
Usage: He was punctilious in providing every amenity for his guests.
Meaning: Earthy, worldly, mundane, earthbound.
Deﬁnition: on or relating to the earth.
Usage: Increased ultraviolet radiation may disrupt terrestrial ecosystems.
Meaning: layabout, lagger, slug, snail, idler, lounger.
Deﬁnition: a person who makes slow progress and falls behind others.
Usage: Staff were under enormous pressure and there was no time for laggards.
Meaning: horriﬁed, appalled, in shock, wide-eyed, shell-shocked, dismayed.
Deﬁnition: ﬁlled with horror or shock.
Usage: She winced, aghast at his cruelty.
Meaning: immaculate, fresh, new, clean, virgin, pure.
Deﬁnition: in its original condition; unspoilt.
Usage: Pristine copies of an early magazine.
Meaning: Argument, quarrel, ﬁght, dissension, quarrel.
Deﬁnition: a noisy argument or disagreement, especially in public.
Usage: I had an altercation with the ticket collector.
Meaning: Luxurious, sumptuous, palatial, grand, magniﬁcent, rich, lush.
Deﬁnition: ostentatiously costly and luxurious.
Usage: The opulent comfort of a limousine.
Meaning: praise enthusiastically, go into raptures about/over, wax lyrical about, acclaim, extol.
Deﬁnition: praise highly in speech or writing.
Usage: He was eulogized as a rock star.
Meaning: shrewd, sharp, bright, brilliant, smart, canny, wise, incisive.
Deﬁnition: having or showing an ability to accurately assess situations or people and turn this to one’s advantage.
Usage: An astute businessman.
Meaning: dark, dark-coloured, dull, drab,shady.
Deﬁnition: dark or dull in colour or tone.
Usage: The night skies were sombre and starless.
Meaning: guilty, culpable, aberrant, deviant, lawless
Deﬁnition: erring or straying from the accepted course or standards.
Usage: An errant husband coming back from a night on the tiles.
Meaning: worry, upset, disturb, trouble.
Deﬁnition: make (someone) anxious or unsettled.
Usage: They were perturbed by her capricious behavior.
Meaning: drink, consume, sup, sip, quaff, swallow, down, guzzle, swill, lap.
Deﬁnition: drink (alcohol).
Usage: They were imbibing far too many pitchers of beer.
Meaning: lying under oath, violation of an oath, giving false evidence/testimony, bearing false witness/testimony.
Deﬁnition: the offence of wilfully telling an untruth or making a misrepresentation under oath.
Usage: He claimed two witnesses at his trial had committed perjury.
Meaning: conquer, trounce, annihiliate, worst, overcome, overwhelm.
Deﬁnition: defeat thoroughly.
Usage: he successfully vanguished his rival.
Meaning: dark, dark-coloured, dull, drab, dingy, shady.
Definition: dark or dull in colour or tone.
Usage: The night skies were sombre and starless.
Meaning: Stay, visit, stop, stopover, residence.
Deﬁnition: a temporary stay.
Usage: Her sojourn in Rome.
Meaning: nonchalant, untroubled, unworried, unnifﬂed, calm, breezy.
Deﬁnition: showing a casual lack of concern.
Usage: An insouciant shrug.
Meaning: Maze, warren, network, web, coil, entanglement.
Deﬁnition: a complicated irregular network of passages or paths in which it is difﬁcult to ﬁnd one’s
way; a maze.
Usage: You lose yourself in a labyrinth of little streets.
Meaning: little bit, small amount, praticle, degree, speck, fragment, scrap, crumb.
Deﬁnition: a small quantity of a particular thing, especially something desirable or valuable.
Usage: His statement had a modicum of truth.
Meaning: resonant, rich, full, booming, vibrant, deep, clear.
Deﬁnition: (of a person‘s voice or other sound) imposingly deep and full.
Usage: He read aloud with a sonorous and musical voice.
Meaning: tedious, dull, unexciting, tiresome, unvaried prosaic, dreary, colourless.
Deﬁnition: dull, tedious, and repetitious; lacking in variety and interest.
Usage: The statistics that he quotes with monotonous regularity.
Meaning: destroy, obliterate, liquidate, eradicate, extinguish, exttinguish
Deﬁnition: destroy utterly; obliterate.
Usage: A simple bomb of this type could annihilate them all.
Meaning: censor, bowdlerize, blue-pencil, redact, cut, edit.
Deﬁnition: remove matter thought to be objectionable or unsuitable from (a text or account).
Usage: An expurgated English translation.
Meaning: mental illness, lunacy, instability, madness, loss of reason.
Deﬁnition: the state of being seriously mentally ill; madness.
Usage: He suffered from bouts of insanity.
Meaning: resentment, affront, anger, distress, unhappiness, hurt, pain, upset, pique, spleen.
Deﬁnition: anger or annoyance provoked by what is perceived as unfair treatment.
Usage: The letter ﬁlled Lucy With indignation.
Meaning: intense, ardent, fervent, zealous, ﬁery, heated, eager, animated, spirited.
Deﬁnition: having, showing, or caused by strong feelings or beliefs.
Usage: Passionate pleas for help.
Meaning: enrage, incense, anger, inﬂame, send into a rage.
Deﬁnition: make (someone) extremely angry and impatient.
Usage: I was infuriated by your article.
Meaning: offspring, young, progeny, spawn.
Deﬁnition: a family of birds or other young animals produced at one hatching or birth.
Usage: A brood of chicks.
Meaning: universal cure, cure-all, Wonder drug, formula, magic bullet magic.
Definition: a solution or remedy for all difﬁculties or diseases.
Usage: The panacea for all corporate ills.
Meaning: disapproving, reproving, critical, censo admonitory rious.
Deﬁnition: expressing disapproval or disappointment.
Usage: She gave him a reproachful look.
Meaning: Overjoyed, exultant, joyful, rejoicing, gleeful, euphoric, ecstatic, transported.
Deﬁnition: feeling or expressing great happiness triumph.and.
Usage: a large number of jubilant fans ran on to the pitch.
Meaning: understand, grasp, take in, see, apprehe follow, make sense of, fathom, make out.
Deﬁnition: grasp mentally; understand.
Usage: he couldn’t comprehend her reasons for marrying Lovat.
Meaning: embargo, ban, prohibition, suspension, stoppage, halt.
Deﬁnition: a temporary prohibition of an activity.
Usage: a moratorium on the use of drift nets.
Meaning: quarrel, ﬁght, argue, bicker, squabble, dispute, clash.
Deﬁnition: be engaged in a prolonged and bitter quarrel or dispute.
Usage: Howover feuded with the CIA for decades.
Meaning: Make deaf, make temporarily deaf.
Deﬁnition: cause (someone) to lose the power of hearing permanently or temporarily.
Usage: We were deafened by the explosion.
Meaning: chance, accident, coincidence, destiny, foruity.
Deﬁnition: chance or luck as an arbitrary force affecting human affairs.
Usage: some malicious act of fortune keeps them separate.
Meaning: Jealousy, desire, enciousness.
Deﬁnition: a feeling of discontented or resentful longing aroused by someone else’s possessions,
qualities, or luck.
Usage: She felt a twinge envy for the people on board.
Meaning: parade, exhibit, show off, draw attention to.
Deﬁnition: display (something) ostentatiously, especially in order to provoke envy or admiration or to show deﬁance.
Usage: newly rich consumers eager to ﬂaunt their prosperity.
Meaning: taunt, sneer, jeer, insult, barb.
Deﬁnition: an insulting or mocking remark; a taunt.
Usage: a jibe at his old rivals.
Meaning: gruesome, horrid, fearful, hideous, macabre, dire, awful.
Deﬁnition: causing horror or disgust.
Usage: The town was shaken by a series of g@yl’1lTl€S
Meaning: Coax, sway, prompt, inveigle, entice, tempt, make, get.
Deﬁnition: induce (someone) to do something through reasoning or argument.
Usage: It wasn‘t easy, but persuaded him to do the right thing.
Meaning: Fuzz, lint, dust.
Deﬁnition: soft ﬁbres from fabrics such as wool or cotton which accumulate in small light clumps.
Usage: he bmshed his sleeve to remove the ﬂlff.
Meaning: Sleet, precipitation, beat, rain, fall, drop.
Deﬁnition: pellets of frozen rain which fall in showers from cumulonimbus clouds.
Usage: rain and hail bounced on the tiled roof.
Meaning: refer to, suggest, hint at, imply, mention, touch on, cite.
Deﬁnition: suggest or call attention to indirectly; hint at.
Usage: She had a way of alluding to J ean but never saying her name.
Meaning: disobey, refuse to obey, flout, disregard, ignore.
Deﬁnition: openly resist or reﬁrse to obey.
Usage: a woman who deﬁes convention.
Meaning: evade, avoid, get away from, dodge, ﬂee, escape(from).
Deﬁnition: escape from or avoid (a danger, enemy, or pursuer), typically in a skilful or cunning way.
Usage: he tried to elude the security men by sneaking through a back door.
Meaning: Equivocal, uncertain, unsure, doubtful, indecisive, irresolute, unresolved, mixed.
Deﬁnition: having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone.
Usage: some loved her, some hated her, few were ambivalent about her.
Meaning: Story, tale, narrative, sketch.
Deﬁnition: a short amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person.
Usage: He told anecdotes about his job.
Meaning: object, protest, take issue, take eXception,cavil.
Deﬁnition: raise objections or show reluctance.
Usage: normally she would have accepted the challenge, but she demurred.
Meaning: careful, circumspect, cautious, wary, chary, guarded, close-mouthed.
Deﬁnition: careful and prudent in one‘s speech or actions, especially in order to keep something conﬁdential or to avoid embarrassment.
Usage: We made some discreet inquiries.
Meaning: resuscitate, bring back from the edge of death.
Deﬁnition: restore to life or consciousness.
Usage: both men collapsed, but were revived.
Meaning: uncanny, sinister, ghostly, unnatural, strange, odd, queer, unreal.
Deﬁnition: strange and frightening.
Usage: An eerie green glow in the sky.
Meaning: trouble, bother, burden, distress, vex, irritate, worry, face.
Deﬁnition: (of a problem or difﬁculty) present itself to (someone) so that action must be taken.
Usage: The new government was confronted with many profound difﬁculties.
Meaning: calm, lull, fade, wane, ebb, still, cease, terminate
Deﬁnition: become less intense, violent, or severe.
Usage: I’ll wait a few minutes until the storm subsides
Meaning: accused, prisoner at the bar.
Deﬁnition: an individual, company, or institution sued or accused in a court of law.
Usage The defendant tried to claim that it was self-defence.
Meaning: hamper, hinder, obstruct, impede, check, cramp, limit, slow.
Deﬁnition: restrict or impede (someone or something) in such a way that free action or movement is difﬁcult.
Usage: She was encumbered by her heavy skirts.
Meaning: disastrous, woeful, dire, tragic, fatal, direful.
Deﬁnition: involving calamity; catastrophic or disastrous.
Usage: Such calamitous events as ﬁres, hurricanes, and ﬂoods.
Meaning: Lazy, idle, indolent, work-shy, inactive, inert, sluggish, dull, heavy.
Usage: Fatigue made him slothful.
Meaning: purgation, relief, exorcism, release, purging.
Deﬁnition: the process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.
Usage: Music is a means of catharsis for them.
Meaning: criticize, censure, attack, lambaste, brand, denounce
Deﬁnition: criticize in an abusive or angrily insulting manner.
Usage: He was now reviled by the party that he had helped to lead.