Meaning: small-town, non-metropolitan, non-urban, back woods, backwater.
Deﬁnition: of or conceming a province of a country or empire of or concerning a province of a country or
Usage: Provincial elections.
Meaning: reprimand, reproach, scold, admonish, chide, upbraid, criticize.
Deﬁnition: express sharp disapproval or criticism of (someone) because of their behaviour or actions express sharp disapproval or criticism of (someone) because of their behaviour or actions.
Usage: she had rebuked him for drinking too much.
Meaning: criticize, castigate, chastise, censure, condemn.
Deﬁnition: criticize (someone or something) harshly.
Usage: They lambasted the report as a gross distortion of the truth.
Meaning: Blast, sound loudly, toot, honk, shriek, screech.
Deﬁnition: make or cause to make a loud, harsh sound.
Usage: The ambulance arrived outside, siren blaring.
Meaning: ring, jingle, jangle, chime, peal, ding, ping.
Deﬁnition: make or cause to make a light, clear ringing sound.
Usage: Cool water tinkled in the stone fountains.
Meaning: proclaim, announce, declare, broadcast, blazon.
Deﬁnition: proclaim widely or loudly.
Usage: The press trumpeted another defeat for the government.
Meaning: crash, bang, smash, clash, bump, thump.
Deﬁnition: the striking of one solid object with or against another with some degree of force.
Usage: the clattering percussion of objects striking the walls and the shutters.
Meaning: paddle, wallow, dabble, slop, plod.
Deﬁnition: walk with effort through water or another liquid or viscous substance.
Usage: He waded out to the boat.
Meaning: ﬂawless, faultless, unblemished, spotless, perfect, exemplary.
Definition: in accordance with the highest standards; faultless.
Usage: He had impeccable manners.
Meaning: puzzle, bafﬂe, mystify, worry, befuddle, addle, fog, throw
Deﬁnition: make (someone) feel completely bafﬂed.
Usage: She was perplexed by her husband’s moodiness.
Meaning: unintentional, unintended, accidental, unpremeditated.
Deﬁnition: not resulting from or achieved through deliberate planning.
Usage: An inadvertent administrative error occurred that resulted in an over payment.
Meaning: absolve, clear, acquit.
Deﬁnition: (of an ofﬁcial body) absolve (someone) from blame for a fault or wrongdoing.
Usage: The inquiry exonerated Lewis and his company.
Meaning: antagonistic, aggressive, confrontational, belligerent.
Deﬁnition: showing or feeling opposition or dislike; unfriendly.
Usage: He wrote a ferociously hostile attack.
Meaning: Spur, encouragement, boost, prompt.
Deﬁnition: a thing that arouses activity or energy in someone or something; a spur or incentive.
Usage: If the tax were abolished, it would act as a stimulus to exports.
Meaning: compel, force, drive, oblige.
Deﬁnition: compel or force (someone) to follow a particular course of action.
Usage: Children are constrained to work in the way the book dictates.
Meaning: Open-mined, responsive, ﬂexible.
Deﬁnition: willing to consider or accept new suggestions and ideas.
Usage: A receptive audience.
Meaning: sluggishness, inertia, inactivity, inaction.
Deﬁnition: a lack of energy and enthusiasm.
Usage: There was an air of lethargy about him.
Meaning: weakening, enfeebling, enervating, enervative.
Deﬁnition: make (someone) very weak and inﬁrm.
Usage: He was severely debilitated by a stomach upset.
Meaning:Deﬁnition: a material or structure formed from a mass of fragments or particles loosely compacted together.
Usage: The specimen is an aggregate of rock and mineral fragments.
Meaning: loud, thunderous, ear-shattering.
Deﬁnition: making an uproar or loud, confused noise.
Usage: He left the stage to tumultuous applause.
Synonyms: reintegrate, readapt, retrain.
Meaning: restore (someone) to health or normal life by training and therapy after imprisonment, addiction, or
Usage: helping to rehabilitate former criminals.
Synonyms: mental hospital, mental institution, psychiatric hospital
Meaning: an institution for the care of people who are mentally ill.
Usage: I he‘d been committed to an asylum.
Synonyms: dishonesty, distortion, lie, equivocation
Meaning: a person dishonest to his organization
Usage: My hesitation and prevarication had apparently not inspired my interlocutor with conﬁdence in me.
Synonyms: aggravate, make worse, worsen, inflame, compound.
Meaning: make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.
Usage: Rising inﬂation was exacerbated by the collapse of oil prices.
Synonyms: improper, unseemly, unbecoming, undigniﬁed, immodest, indecent, immoral.
Meaning: not in keeping with good taste and propriety; improper.
Usage: a pub crawl with sundry indecorous adventures.
Synonyms: declaration, contention, statement, claim, submission, swearing.
Meaning: a conﬁdent and forceful statement of fact or belief.
Usage: His assertion that his father had deserted the family.
Synonyms: inappropriateness, dissonance, difference, inconsistency, lack of harmony.
Meaning: the state of being incongruous; incompatibility.
Usage: the incongruity of his ﬂeshy face and skinny body disturbed her the incongruity of his ﬂeshy face and skinny body disturbed her.
Synonyms: arbitration, refereeing, umpiring.
Meaning: The action or process of adjudicating.
Usage: The matter may have to go to court for adjudication.
Synonyms: prevalent, penetrating, extensive, general, common, universal, rife.
Meaning: (especially of an unwelcome inﬂuence or physical effect) spreading widely throughout an area or
a group of people.
Usage: ageism is pervasive and entrenched in our society.
Synonyms: dither, teeter, waver, hesitate, oscillate, ﬂuctuate.
Meaning: waver between different opinions or actions; be indecisive.
Usage: I vacillated between teaching and journalism.
Synonyms: central, crucial, vital.
Meaning: of crucial importance in relation to the development or success of something else.
Usage: Japan’s pivotal role in the world economy.
Synonyms: ﬂoating, drifting, non-submerged.
Meaning: ﬂoating in water; not sinking.
Usage: A swimmer ﬁghting to stay aﬂoat.
Synonyms: wreck, damage.
Meaning: deliberately destroy, damage, or obstruct (something), especially for political or military
Usage: Power lines from South Africa were sabotaged by rebel forces.
Synonyms: chance, accidental, possible.
Meaning: subject to chance.
Usage: The contingent nature of the job.
Synonyms: annul, void, invalidate
Meaning: make legally null and void; invalidate.
Usage: Judges were unwilling to nullify govemment decisions.
Synonyms: judgment, adjudication, decision, finding.
Meaning: a decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal case or an inquest.
Usage: The coroner recorded a verdict of death by misadventure.
Synonyms: old, past, one-time.
Usage: Written in memory of the composer’s erstwhile teacher.
Synonyms: plot, scheme, plan.
Meaning: a secret plan by a group to do something unlawful or harmful.
Usage: The company was involved in a conspiracy with bookmakers to manipulate starting prices.
Synonyms: set, circle, crowd.
Meaning: a small group of people with shared interests or tastes, especially one that is exclusive of other
Usage: All prime ministers develop a small coterie of kindred spirits.
Synonyms: prevalent, penetrating, extensive.
Meaning: (especially of an unwelcome inﬂuence or physical effect) spreading widely throughout an area or
a group of people.
Usage: Ageism is pervasive and entrenched in our society.
Meaning: Memorial, remembrance, celebratory, celebrative.
Definition: acting as a memorial of an event or person.
Usage: Minister of State ManojSinha today released a commemorative postage stamp on Tourism in India on
the occasion of 70th Independence day.
Meaning: catastrophe, tragedy, act of god, calamity.
Deﬁnition: a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.
Usage: US President Barack Obama issued a disaster declaration for ﬂood-devastated Louisiana.
Meaning: min, destroy, raze, damage, lay waste, wipe out.
Definition: cause severe and extensive damage to.
Usage: The hurricane ravaged southern Florida.
Meaning: Expand, bulge, distend, inﬂate, balloon, bloat, grow, increase, rise.
Deﬁnition: become or make greater in intensity, number, amount, or volume.
Usage: The ﬂooding submerged large parts of the region on Sunday, three days after water-swelled streams and rivers began rising.
Meaning: meantime, meanwhile, interval, interlude.
Deﬁnition: the intervening time.
Usage: In the interim I‘ll just keep my ﬁngers crossed.
Meaning: hanging, screen, blind, window hanging
Deﬁnition: a screen of heavy cloth or other material that can be raised or lowered at the front of a stage.
Usage: She drew the curtains and lit the ﬁre.
Meaning: Brag, crow, swagger, swank, own, enjoy, have.
Deﬁnition: talk with excessive pride and self-satisfaction about one’s achievements, possessions, or
Usage: She boasted about her many conquests.
Meaning: Stop, head off, cutoff.
Deﬁnition: obstruct (someone or something) so as to prevent them from continuing to a destination.
Usage: Intelligence agencies intercepted a series of telephone calls.
Meaning: Cover, surface, ﬂoor, top, ﬁnish.
Deﬁnition: cover (a piece of ground) with flat stones or bricks; lay paving over.
Usage: China Satellite will pave the way to a hack-proof communication system.
Meaning: Practicability, practicality, workability, viability.
Deﬁnition: the state or degree of being easily or conveniently done.
Usage: The feasibility of screening athletes for cardiac disease.
Meaning: idealistic, unbusinesslike, romatic, extravagant, visionary, unworldly.
Deﬁnition: extremely idealistic; unrealistic and impractical.
Usage: A vast and perhaps quixotic project.
Meaning: bold, shameless, forward, unashamed, unabashed, unblushing.
Definition: bold and without shame.
Usage: He went about his illegal business with a brazen assurance.
Meaning: inventive, creative, imaginative, original, innovative, resourceful, inspired.
Deﬁnition: (of a person) clever, original, and inventive.
Usage: He was ingenious enough to overcome the limited budget.
Meaning: innocent, artless, guileless, trustful, unaffacted, fond, wide-eyed, simple.
Deﬁnition: (of a person) natural and unaffected; innocent.
Usage: Andy had a sweet, naive look when he smiled.
Meaning: charming, sophisticated, debonair, urbane, polished, digniﬁed, gentlemanly, gallant.
Deﬁnition: (especially of a man) charming, conﬁdent, and elegant.
Usage: All the waiters were suave and deferential.
Meaning: gourmet, gourmand, connoisseur, gastronome.
Deﬁnition: a person who takes particular pleasure in ﬁne food and drink.
Usage: They see themselves as epicures—delighting in food that is properly prepared.
Meaning: generous, charitable, benevolent, open- handed, bountiful, liberal, princely, kind, kindly.
Deﬁnition: generous or forgiving, especially towards a rival or less powerful person.
Usage: She should be magnanimous in victory.
Meaning: Model, good example, apotheosis, exemplar, paradigm, acme, shining example.
Deﬁnition: a person or thing viewed as a model of excellence.
Usage: Your cook is a paragon.
Meaning: Connoisseur, genteel.
Deﬁnition: concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty.
Usage: The pictures give great aesthetic pleasure.
Meaning: sociable, social, companionable, clubbable, convivial.
Deﬁnition: (of a person) fond of company; sociable
Usage: He was a popular and gregarious man.
Meaning: Desert, Leave, cast aside,
Deﬁnition: cease to support or look after (someone); desert.
Usage: Her natural mother had abandoned her at an early age.
Meaning: Sponsorship, backing, funding, promotion, support, guaranty, protection.
Deﬁnition: the support given by a patron.
Usage: The arts could no longer depend on private patronage.
Meaning: cross, negotiate, cross, pass over.
Deﬁnition: travel across or through.
Usage: He traversed the forest.
Meaning: get better, recover, convalesce, get back to normal.
Deﬁnition: recover from illness or exertion.
Usage: She has been recuperating from a knee injury.
Meaning: charity, bounty, subsidy, largesse, endowment.
Deﬁnition: (in historical contexts) money or food given to poor people.
Usage: The riders stopped to distribute alms.
Meaning: diminished, impaired, reduced, decreased.
Deﬁnition: reduce the force, effect, or value of.
Usage: Her intolerance was attenuated by an unexpected liberalism.
Meaning: Vengeful, out for revenge, revengeful, avenging, unforgiving, implacable, bitter.
Deﬁnition: having or showing a strong or unreasoning desire for revenge.
Usage: The criticism was both vindictive and personalized.
Meaning: embarrass, discomfort, unsettle, unnerve, upset, disturb, perturb, distress.
Deﬁnition: make (someone) feel uneasy or embarrassed.
Usage: He was not noticeably discomfited by her tone.
Meaning: allegation, charge, claim, asseveration, blame, criticism, complaint.
Deﬁnition: a charge or claim that someone has done something illegal or wrong.
Usage: accusations of bribery.
Meaning: Charge with, arraign for, take to court for, put on trial for.
Deﬁnition: formally accuse of or charge with a crime.
Usage: His former manager was indicted for fraud.
Meaning: din, racket, noise, discord, dissonance, jarring, grating, rasping.
Deﬁnition: A harsh discordant mixture of sounds.
Usage: A cacophony of deafening alarm bells.
Meaning: edge, verge, margin, rim, lip.
Deﬁnition: the extreme edge of land before a steep slope or a body or water.
Usage: The brink of the cliffs.
Meaning: aware, awake, compos mentis, alert, responsive, reactive, feeling, sentient.
Deﬁnition: aware of and responding to one’s surroundings.
Usage: Although I was in pain, I was conscious.
Meaning: admit to, allow into, introduce to, install in.
Deﬁnition: admit (someone) formally to a post or organization.
Usage: Arrangements for inducting new members to an organization.
Meaning: discern, recognize, tell, grasp, understand, deduce, conclude, sence, divine, intuit.
Deﬁnition: become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand.
Usage: His mouth fell open as he perceived the truth.
Meaning: Prominence, importance, signiﬁcance.
Deﬁnition: special importance, value, or prominence given to something.
Usage: They placed great emphasis on the individual’s freedom.
Meaning: Obvious, apparent, noticeable, conspicuous, perceptible.
Deﬁnition: clearly seen or understood; obvious.
Usage: She ate the biscuits with evident enjoyment.
Meaning: Irritate, annoyed, angry, testy, tetchy, snappy, cross, crabby, moody.
Deﬁnition: having or showing a tendency to be quickly irritated or provoked.
Usage: An impatient motorist blaring his hom.
Meaning: ballad, lyric.
Deﬁnition: a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of fonnal rhyme schemes, in English typically
having ten syllables per line.
Usage: compose sonnets.
Meaning: ordinary, common, commonplace, average.
Deﬁnition: of only average quality; not very good.
Usage: He is an enthusiastic if mediocre painter.
Meaning: Contemptible, loathsome, hateful, detestable, reprehensible, awful, heinous.
Deﬁnition: deserving hatred and contempt.
Usage: A despicable crime.
Meaning: distrub, shock, bother, hurt, mortify, pain, upset.
Deﬁnition: subject to lasting shock as a result of a disturbing experience or physical injury.
Usage: The children were traumatized by separation from their families.
Meaning: iniquity, violation, crime, wrong, offence, affront, scandal, injustice.
Deﬁnition: an extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury.
Usage: A textbook which detailed War atrocities.
Meaning: inestimable, untold, immeasurable, uncountable, indeterminable, incomputable.
Deﬁnition: too great to be calculated or estimated.
Usage: An archive of incalculable value.
Meaning: unimaginative, uncreative, narrow-minded, short-term, small-mind.
Definition: lacking foresight or intellectual insight.
Usage: The government still has a myopic attitude to public spending.
Meaning: Relevant, apposite, appropriate, suitable, ﬁtting, ﬁt, apt, apropos.
Deﬁnition: relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite.
Usage: She asked me a lot of very pertinent questions.
Meaning: unpalatable, unappetizing, unpleasant, disagreeable, uninviting, unattractive.
Deﬁnition: disagreeable to taste, smell, or look at.
Usage: They looked at the scanty, unsavoury portions of food doled out to them.
Meaning: Outlook, view, viewpoint, point of view, standpoint, position, stand, attitude.
Deﬁnition: a particular attitude towards or way of regarding something; a point of view.
Usage: Most guidebook history is written from the editor‘s perspective.
Meaning: ecstasy, bliss, euphoria, exaltation, joy, transport, rhapsody, delight, pleasure.
Deﬁnition: a feeling of intense pleasure or joy.
Usage: Leonora listened with rapture.
Meaning: Execrate, imprecate, hoodoo.
Deﬁnition: invoke or use a curse against.
Usage: It often seemed as if the family had been cursed.
Meaning: depend, hang, rest, tum, pivot, centre, be conditional.
Deﬁnition: attach or join with or as if with a hinge.
Usage: The ironing board was set into the wall and hinged at the bottom.
Meaning: Vote, poll, election, straw poll, plebiscite.
Deﬁnition: a system of voting secretly and in writing on a particular issue.
Usage: A strike ballot.
Meaning: disillusioned, disappointed, let down, fed up, discontented.
Deﬁnition: cause (someone) to be disappointed.
Usage: He may have been disenchanted by the loss of his huge following.
Meaning: unit, outﬁt, force.
Deﬁnition: an ancient Roman military unit, comprising six centuries, equal to one tenth of a legion.
Usage: A cohort of civil servants patiently drafting legislation.
Meaning: brazenness, audacity, boldness, temerity, front, pertness, forwardness.
Deﬁnition: behaviour perceived as arrogant, disrespectful, and transgressing the limits of what is permitted or appropriate.
Usage: He lifted her off the ground, and she was enraged at his presumption.
Meaning: prejudiced, biased, partial, one-sided, dectarian, discriminatory.
Deﬁnition: obstinately or unreasonably attached to a belief, opinion, or faction, and intolerant towards other people’s beliefs and practices.
Usage: A bigoted group of reactionaries.
Meaning: prevail on, induce, win someone over, coax, convince, make get.
Deﬁnition: induce (someone) to do something through reasoning or argument.
Usage: It wasn’t easy, but I persuaded him to do the right thing.
Meaning: image, face, public face, character, personality, identity, self
Deﬁnition: the aspect of someone’s character that is presented to or perceived by others
Usage: Her public persona.
Meaning: surprise, stagger, startle, stun, confound, dumbfound.
Deﬁnition: surprise or impress (someone) greatly.
Usage: You never fail to astonish me.
Meaning: brutal, savage, violent, dangerous, ruthless, heartless, callous, cruel.
Deﬁnition: deliberately cruel or violent.
Usage: A vicious assault.